[extropy-chat] random caveman thought

BillK pharos at gmail.com
Sun Dec 17 17:05:27 UTC 2006

On 12/17/06, Amara Graps wrote:
> I guess you've not heard of the underground cities in Cappadocia (Turkey)
> Estimates give at least 35 underground cities (experts say many more are
> waiting to be discovered). The largest is under under Derinkuyu. The
> site at Derinkuyu covers an area of 4 km^2 and is considered to be big
> enough to house 2000 families, 20,000 people in total. Some of the
> openings are in presently used houses, parts of the first floors of some
> underground cities are used as storage places. Some of the these
> underground developments go down 18-20 floors. I recommend highly a visit
> to them, they are fascinating places representing life underground, and
> for centuries.
> The development of these cities began 4000 years ago, and were
> continually developed over the next several thousand years. Even though
> they were continually developed, the cities were greatly enlarged
> upon arrival of Arab raiding parties in Anatolia in the 7th and 8th
> centuries, who drove the monks underground taking the local Christian
> communities with them forming the underground cities.

Yes, there are lots of underground houses around the world. Google
produces many references. But they could not be used for *permanent*
habitation for large tribes before agriculture was invented.

"Wherever caves were available, prehistoric nomadic hunters and
gatherers incorporated them into the yearly cycle of seasonal camps.
On every continent, prehistoric foragers made use of caves. Chinese
caves contain some of the earliest evidence of human use of fire,
approximately 400,000 years ago.
Once agriculture became important, people established villages of
permanent houses and found new uses for caves, mainly as hunting and
herding campsites and for ceremonial activities. In Europe, Asia, and
Africa caves continued to be used as shelters by nomadic groups."

says that agriculture arrived between 9000 and 3000 BC in Europe and
around 3000 BC in the Americas.

After an adequate, continuous supply of local food and water became
available, early humans could think about permanent habitation and
building civilization. The natural caves and soft rock in Cappadocia
caused the Hittite people to take advantage of the natural caves and
also start excavating additional caves around 2000 - 1000 BC.


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