[Paleopsych] UCIrvine: Human intelligence determined by volume and location of gray matter tissue in brain
checker at panix.com
Wed Jul 21 18:21:26 UTC 2004
Human intelligence determined by volume and location of gray matter
tissue in brain
[I'm adopting the convention of adding q.v. (quod vide, Latin for "which
see") after URLs that you might well want to see in a graphics browser. In
graphic. And so I leave in the link in the references at the bottom so
you'll know this is the one, even though you can't get to the graphic by
clicking on the link from this e-message. I'll try, depending on my energy
point to anything useful.
[I'm sending this article to many lists for which this particular item may
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University of California, Irvine - A Top-10 Public University
Wednesday, July 21, 2004
Single `intelligence center' in brain unlikely, UCI study also finds
Irvine, Calif. , July 19, 2004
General human intelligence appears to be based on the volume of gray
matter tissue in certain regions of the brain, UC Irvine College of
Medicine researchers have found in the most comprehensive structural
brain-scan study of intelligence to date.
The study also discovered that because these regions related to
intelligence are located throughout the brain, a single "intelligence
center," such as the frontal lobe, is unlikely.
Dr. Richard Haier, professor of psychology in the Department of
Pediatrics and long-time human intelligence researcher, and colleagues
at UCI and the University of New Mexico used MRI to obtain structural
images of the brain in 47 normal adults who also took standard
intelligence quotient tests. The researchers used a technique called
voxel-based morphometry to determine gray matter volume throughout the
brain which they correlated to IQ scores. Study results appear on the
online version of NeuroImage.
Previous research had shown that larger brains are weakly related to
higher IQ, but this study is the first to demonstrate that gray matter
in specific regions in the brain is more related to IQ than is overall
size. Multiple brain areas are related to IQ, the UCI and UNM
researchers have found, and various combinations of these areas can
similarly account for IQ scores. Therefore, it is likely that a
person's mental strengths and weaknesses depend in large part on the
individual pattern of gray matter across his or her brain.
"This may be why one person is quite good at mathematics and not so
good at spelling, and another person, with the same IQ, has the
opposite pattern of abilities," Haier said.
While gray matter amounts are vital to intelligence levels, the
researchers were surprised to find that only about 6 percent of all
the gray matter in the brain appears related to IQ.
"There is a constant cascade of information being processed in the
entire brain, but intelligence seems related to an efficient use of
relatively few structures, where the more gray matter the better,"
Haier said. "In addition, these structures that are important for
intelligence are also implicated in memory, attention and language."
The findings also suggest that the brain areas where gray matter is
related to IQ show some differences between young-adult and
middle-aged subjects. In middle age, more of the frontal and parietal
lobes are related to IQ; less frontal and more temporal areas are
related to IQ in the younger adults.
The research does not address why some people have more gray matter in
some brain areas than other people, although previous research has
shown the regional distribution of gray matter in humans is highly
heritable. Haier and his colleagues are currently evaluating the MRI
data to see if there are gender differences in IQ patterns.
Haier's colleagues in the study include Dr. Michael T. Alkire and
Kevin Head of UCI and Drs. Rex E. Jung and Ronald A. Yeo of the
University of New Mexico. The National Institute of Child Health and
Human Development supported the study.
About the University of California, Irvine: The University of
California, Irvine is a top-ranked public university dedicated to
research, scholarship and community. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the
fastest-growing University of California campuses, with approximately
24,000 undergraduate and graduate students and about 1,300 faculty
members. The third-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI
contributes an annual economic impact of $3 billion.
Areas in brain activated by IQ testing Areas in brain activated by
Department of Pediatrics
tmvasich at uci.edu
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