[Paleopsych] Robotic Nation Evidence 2004.8

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Tue Sep 28 19:15:20 UTC 2004

Robotic Nation Evidence 2004.8

[None for September yet. Maybe Marshall Brain has dropped this feature. 
And I'm late myself getting around to going to his site.]

    News of the developing Robotic Nation


More examples of Moore's Law

     Many examples of Moore's Law this week:
      * [6]AMD demos first dual-core processor - "The chips -- which
        contain two processor cores and 1M byte of Level 2 cache for each
        core -- use the same 940-pin socket used by AMD's single-core
        Opteron processors manufactured with a 90-nanometer process,
        according to information posted on the AMD's Web site. This
        compatibility will allow HP, Sun Microsystems Inc. and IBM Corp.
        to incorporate dual-core Opterons in existing systems that are
        designed for the Opteron, AMD said."
      * [7]Intel's 65nm chip will make laptops go further - "Intel has
        built a fully functional 70Mb static random access memory (SRam)
        chip with more than half a billion transistors, using 65nanometer
        (nm) process technology."
      * [8]Computer hard drives perform better, last longer with novel
        polyester lubricant
      * [9]NIST Unveils Chip-Scale Atomic Clock - "The heart of a
        minuscule atomic clockbelieved to be 100 times smaller than any
        other atomic clockhas been demonstrated by scientists at the
        Commerce Departments National Institute of Standards and
        Technology (NIST), opening the door to atomically precise
        timekeeping in portable, battery-powered devices for secure
        wireless communications, more precise navigation and other
      * [10]96 Processors Under Your Desktop - "A small Santa Clara-based
        company, Orion Multisystems, today unveils a new concept in
        computing, 'cluster workstations.' In October, you'll be able to
        choose between a 12-processor unit for less than $10,000 and a
        96-processor system for less than $100,000. These new systems are
        powered by Efficeon processors from Transmeta and are running
        Fedora Linux version 2.6.6."

    The last one is interesting. It echoes the "workstation boom" in the
    1980s, when players like Sun, Apollo, DEC, IBM, etc. battled it out
    for the scientific desktop with UNIX workstations.
    This machine is not quite as impressive as it sounds at first.
    According to [11]this page, an Efficeon is only about one-quarter as
    fast as a Pentium. So this machine might "only" be as powerful as a
    20- or 25-Pentium workstation. The reason for using the Efficeon,
    despite its relative slowness, is its low wattage per calculation. If
    you put 25 Pentiums in a box, they would consume 3,000 or 4,000 watts
    -- it would blast you out of your office with the heat, and you would
    need to run a special 30-amp circuit to plug it in. For comparison, a
    typical electric clothes dryer uses [12]4,000 watts. By using Efficeon
    chips, at 8 watts per chip, the whole machine uses "only" as much
    power as a blow drier.
    The thing that is interesting about this machine is the amount of
    horsepower it makes available in an "off-the-shelf" package. If
    history repeats itself, then in ten years this is the horsepower that
    a "normal" $500 desktop machine will have available. Along with
    [13]many terabytes of storage space.
    See [14]Robotic Nation for details.
    // [15]permalink


Robotic mobility


    This is a good example of the unusual forms robots can take in the
    [17]GM Mobility - Sit-N-Lift
    From the article:
    GM is the only automotive manufacturer in the U.S. to offer a fully
        motorized, rotating lift-and-lower passenger seat to help people
        stay on the move. Sit-N-Lift(TM)(1) provides convenient access to
        the right-hand second-row seating area. Operated by a handheld
        remote control, the power bucket seat rotates, then extends out of
        the vehicle and lowers for easy entry and exit. This
        dealer-installed accessory called Sit-N-Lift(TM)(1) is available
        on 2001 through 2004 extended wheelbase models of Chevy Venture,
        Pontiac Montana and Oldsmobile Silhouette.

    Imagine hospital beds that automatically load, roll and bathe
    patients. Imagine sofas and chairs that rearrange themselves, come
    when you call them and that move themselves for easy cleaning. And so
    // [18]permalink


Robots and jobs

     [19]Rise in offshoring breeds job insecurity among U.S. workers
    From the article:
    "With an expanding array of jobs vulnerable to being moved offshore,
        many Americans will migrate to such fields as health care and
        education, which require face-to-face contact, the experts
        Automation isn't just allowing individuals to do more work than
        they once did, it's eliminating the need for many of those
        individuals in the first place. Technology is wiping out whole
        categories of lower-wage jobs such as supermarket cashiers,
        airport ticket agents and bank tellers.

    This is exactly the point of [20]Robotic Nation.
    If this transition happened slowly, that would be one thing. The
    problem is that the transition is going to happen very quickly -- much
    faster than we've seen before. That speed will cause a great deal of
    People will try to transition to "health care and education", but then
    those fields will be automated as well. See for example:
      * [21]Robotic Education
      * [22]Robots and Teachers
      * [23]The arrival of the robotic hospital
      * [24]More Hospital Robots

    Every aspect of our economy will be automating simultaneously. Retail
    stores will be eliminating millions of employees. The tranportation
    sector will be turning to robotic cars, trucks and planes. And so on.
    See [25]Robots taking jobs for a fascinating list.
    See [26]Robotic Nation for details. See [27]yesterday's census numbers
    for statistical evidence of the trend.
    // [28]permalink


Robotic insects at war

    [29]Australian scientists turn to insect swarms for new generation
    From the article:
    Alex Ryan, a mathematician with the government's defense Science and
        Technology Organisation, heads a team that is working on computer
        software recreating swarm behaviour for use on the battlefield.
        The goal is to develop swarms of small, expendable unmanned
        vehicles that can carry out missions in ground, sea and aerial
        environments too dangerous for humans.

    It is easy to imagine a number of scenarios:
      * A bank robber walks into the bank's lobby, and 250 robotic insects
        jump out of the woodwork and encase him.
      * A protestor shouting at a presidential candidate out of turn is
        encased by 250 robotic insects who inject him with tranquilizers.
      * A famous person does not have body guards, but instead has a swarm
        of robotic insects hovering overhead ready to descend at a
        moment's notice.
      * On a battlefield, a C-130 airplane releases 1,000,000 robotic
        insects behind enemy lines, and the insects find and poison every
        enemy combatant.
      * Those same 1,000,000 robotic insects could do the same thing at a
        riot, or at a peaceful demonstration.
      * And so on...

    // [30]permalink


Robots in Japan

    [31]Land of the rising robot


    From the article:
    Hiroshi Kobayashi, one of Japan's leading robot scientists, says he
        believes the concept of a moving humanoid robot will become
        invaluable in the future.
        His own designs include a muscle suit to help physically disabled
        people with movement, and his robotic receptionist will be on the
        market within the next year.

    Yoichi Takamoto, CEO of Japanese robotics business TMSUK, says his
        company is working closely with the Japanese fire service to make
        its "Hyper Robot" become a key member of a fire fighting crew.

    // [33]permalink


Humanoid combat robots in Japan

     [34]Combat robots wow crowds
    From the article:
    A robot fighting contest that draws huge crowds in Japan each year has
        highlighted sophisticated technological trends in robotics,
        experts say.

    Richardson adds that the fighting machines highlight the trend for
        making robots more robust. "There's a definite trend in the last
        few years to have more fault-tolerant humanoid robots," he says.
        "At some point they are going to fall over, so make them so they
        don't get damaged and can get back up again."

    The article links to two videos, including [35]this one (3.90MB MPG)
    and [36]this one (3.48MB MPG). See also [37]Robotic Security.
    // [38]permalink

NASA robot rides a Segway

    [39]NASA engineers refine Robonaut
    From the article:
    Robonaut B, a robot built with human-like hands and television camera
        eyes, now has the option of rolling around Earth on a modified
        two-wheeled Segway scooter or grappling the International Space
        Station with what researchers call a "space leg."
        "We built Robonaut B to be portable," said Robert Ambrose,
        robonaut project lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center in
        Houston,Texas. "It really exceeded our expectations."
        The second in the robonaut series, Robonaut B is a self-contained
        robot controlled remotely by a human operator. Future incarnations
        of the mobile robot could prove vital companions for astronauts
        living and working on the moon and in space.
        "We're looking at other lower bodies for the moon, with a
        four-wheel or six-wheel base," Ambrose said. "We're not going to
        take a Segway to the moon, but it's a good way to emulate the idea
        on Earth."

    See also [40]Robots and NASA and [41]Robotic repair.
    // [42]permalink


Smallest robotic helicopter

     [43]Mini helicopter unveiled in Japan


    From the article:
    The latest tiny flying robot has been unveiled in Japan, armed with
        top-of- the-range high-tech gadgetry.
        Seiko Epson launched the FR-II, which is lighter than an empty
        drinks can [12 grams]. It carries a digital camera, and, unlike
        other flying robots, a battery.

    // [45]permalink


Interplanetary robots

    [46]NASA Develops Robust AI For Planetary Rovers
    From the article:
    NASA is planning to add a strong dose of artificial intelligence (AI)
        to planetary rovers to make them much more self-reliant, capable
        of making basic decisions during a mission.
        Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, in the heart of
        California's Silicon Valley, are developing very complex AI
        software that enables a higher level of robotic intelligence.
        In the past, very simple artificial intelligence systems on board
        rovers allowed them to make some simple decisions, but much
        smarter AI will enable these mobile robots to make many decisions
        now made by mission controllers.

    // [47]permalink


Tomato-picking robots

     [48]Ohio State University develops robotic tomato harvester for the
    J.F. Kennedy Space Center
    Further research in robotic farming is being helped by NASA of all
    people. According to the article:
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) considers
        farming a matter of survival for future long-term space missions.
        Plants provide food when deliveries from Earth aren't feasible and
        make air breathable and water drinkable. But who will care for and
        harvest crops when astronauts are so busy carrying out key mission
        tasks? "Labor requirements to grow and harvest the crops must be
        reduced through automation," said Peter Ling, an Ohio State
        University Extension specialist.

    The harvester includes a sensing unit and a robotic hand integrated
        with a commercial robotic manipulator provided by Motoman Inc.,
        West Carrollton, Ohio.
        The sensing unit, or robotic eye, scans the tomato plant and
        determines the number and position of red fruits. With this
        information, the four-finger prosthetic hand moves in the
        direction of the fruit. The fingers then open around the tomato
        and get a hold of it before a pulling, bending or torsion movement
        is applied to detach it.

    There are plans to expand the research into other fruit crops like
    apples and oranges.
    See also:
      * [49]Produce picking robot
      * [50]Agricultural robots to take over the farm
      * [51]Farms and robots

    // [52]permalink


Robots and guns

     The company called Metal Storm creates guns that can fire bullets at
    rates "in excess of one million rounds per minute". It is probably
    safe to say that a gun that can shoot a million rounds a minute is
    fairly lethal. So the obvious thing to do is to give such a gun to a
    robot, as demonstrated in this video collection:
    [53]Metal Storm - Video - Latest Releases


    See also: [55]Successful X-45 robotic bomber
    // [56]permalink


The Coming Robot Revolution

    [57]The Coming Robot Revolution
    From the article:
    Robots, from mechanical dogs that can learn new tricks to automated
        vacuum cleaners that avoid furniture, are steadily becoming a part
        of everyday life. But the real robot boom lies just ahead, experts

    // [58]permalink


Olympic security

     [59]CNN.com - Olympics' digital security unprecedented
    From the article:
    If you're going to the Olympics, you'd better be careful what you say
        and do in public.
        Software will be watching and listening.
        Recent leaps in technology have paired highly sophisticated
        software with street surveillance cameras to create digital
        security guards with intelligence-gathering skills.

    It gathers images and audio from an electronic web of over 1,000
        high-resolution and infrared cameras, 12 patrol boats, 4,000
        vehicles, nine helicopters, a sensor-laden blimp and four mobile
        command centers.

    This is an extremely good example of a [60]Robotic Bubble. As we
    create [61]humanoid robotic guards and [62]armed robotic security
    forces these bubbles will get bigger and much tighter.
    The bubble around Washington is being noted in articles like these:
      * [63]Street Closing Irks D.C. Leaders (washingtonpost.com): "...set
        up 14 vehicle checkpoints, creating a huge security perimeter
        around powerful symbols..."
      * [64]The New York Times: Safety Precautions Transform Appearance of
        Capitol Hill

    It is very easy to imagine the day when you cannot enter any American
    city unless you have permission to do so. They will all be protected
    by bubbles.
    See also [65]Robotic Surveillance and [66]Manna for details.
    // [67]permalink


What robotic memory will look like in 10 years

    [68]Taiwan firms to launch 2TB memory card
    From the article:
    The format will support up to 2TB of storage capacity within a 3.2 x
        2.4 x 0.1cm card - the same size as a standard MMC unit. The new
        cards are said to be connector-compatible with the older format.
        The new cards will have a data transfer rate of 120MBps, ten times
        that of SD memory cards. Like the Secure Digital format, µcard
        will support I/O devices, such as Bluetooth and 802.11 adaptors.

    It is very rare today to find a personal computer with one terabyte of
    disk space. If it has it, it is made up of 4 to 10 drives and has an
    access rate of 30 or 40 MB/sec. The drive array takes up a cubic foot
    or more of space, consumes lots of electricity, generates lots of heat
    and weighs 20 pounds.
    In 10 years, robots will be running around with two terabytes of
    memory that is 4 times faster, uses no power to speak of and fills a
    cubic centimeter of space. That's the effect of [69]Moore's Law. See
      * [70]Keeping up with Moore's Law
      * [71]Moore's law and hard disks
      * [72]The effects of Moore's law

    Another example of the same trend: [73]Holographic discs look like
    DVDs but hold a terabyte of information. Today.
    // [74]permalink


Robotic assembly

     [75]Popular Science | A Limber Future
    The article notes:
    At this stage, however, NanoSonic is busy meeting the demand for its
        12-inch-by-12-inch samples, which take custom-built robots up to
        three days to create. That's speedy, if you consider that Metal
        Rubber, a product of nanotechnology, must be fabricated molecule
        by molecule.

    // [76]permalink


Kids and multi-tasking

    [77]The screen-age: Our brains in our laptops
    From the article:
    A student may have a textbook open. The television is on with sound
        off (perhaps with the CNN Headline News modular screen). They've
        got music on headphones. On a laptop hooked in to the Internet
        there's a homework window, along with e-mail and instant messaging
        in the background. The Web has become an essential part of
        checking facts and figures for the homework (not to mention
        plagiarizing with copy and paste). On top of that, the student may
        field phone calls or talk with a roommate.
        One of the most striking observations in Turkle's findings was a
        quote from one multi-tasking student who preferred the online
        world to the face-to-face world. "Real life," he said, "is just
        one more window."
        College students are the leading edge in adapting to this new
        goldfish bowl, these new multi-tasking sense ratios. Some of us
        will hold on to the old ways by our fingernails, afraid of losing
        a coherent self. Others will plunge into the new collective nerve
        center, our various selves loosely joined in a partial free-fall
        at all times.

    This goes back to the post entitled [78]Robots and teachers, and helps
    explain why "traditional education" using a human lecturer standing at
    a whiteboard simply will not last that much longer. It it too boring,
    too slow...
    // [79]permalink


Keeping up with Moore's Law

     I gave a [80]talk to a group of robotics folks on Monday night, and
    one of the concerns that came up in the Q&A session afterwards was
    that [81]Moore's Law will somehow "run out of steam." Two of the
    problems that people brought up included, a) the ever-shrinking size
    of transistors cannot continue forever, and b) increasing power
    consumption cannot continue forever. One point made is that current
    supercomputers (the kind with 10,000 Pentium chips running in
    parallel) can consume 10 to 20 megawatts of power. Certainly a robot
    cannot consume 20 megawatts.
    I understand both points, but I think they are both irrelevant. First,
    we KNOW it is possible to produce a high-performance, low power CPU.
    Each one of us has a brain that performs something on the order of one
    quadrillion operations per second, yet it consumes only [82]20 watts.
    Second, Scientists and engineers make discoveries all the time, and
    things simply get faster and faster. 20 years ago a Cray computer ran
    so hot that the entire computer (as big as a refrigerator) was
    immersed in [83]liquid FC-77 to extract the prodigious amounts of heat
    it created. [84]Today you can get that same power in a little desktop
    computer cooled with a small fan. That's normal progress, and there's
    nothing going to stop that sort of progress.
    Here are two articles that show current trends in making computers
    faster and more efficient:
    [85]Sun chips away at wireless chip connections
    From the article:
    It will take a lot of work, but Sun Microsystems says it is making
        headway on a technology that will allow chips to communicate
        without circuit boards or wires.
        The technology, called "proximity communication," aims to let one
        chip transmit signals directly to another next to it, instead of
        through the tangle of pins, wires and circuit boards employed
        today. If successful, the technique could greatly alter many
        aspects of computer design.
        Performance, for instance, could greatly escalate because the
        speed of transferring data among chips and the number of channels
        for the transfers would increase. Energy consumption could also
        decline. Just as important, overall costs could fall, because
        defective chips could be removed like Scrabble tiles.

    The technique could also allow designers to remove the cache--the
        large pool of memory currently found on the processor--and put it
        on a separate chip. Caches were integrated onto processors to
        amplify bandwidth. Adding cache, however, bumps up manufacturing
        costs, as it greatly increases the number of transistors. With the
        bandwidth constraint gone, caches could once again be made
        independent without it having an impact on performance.

    If you take out the cache -- representing millions of transistors --
    you can use those transistors for something else. See [86]this page
    for some thoughts.
    This article talks about a whole new paradigm for computing:
    [87]Nanotech leads way to quantum computing
    From the article:
    Plastic chips and quantum computing could be among the new ways of
        keeping up with Moore's Law in the future, according to a new
        study on nanotechnology, the science of manipulating matter on a
        molecular level.

    One point I made in my talk and in my article discussed how quickly
    airplanes advanced between 1903 and 1954:
    Imagine that you could travel back in time to the year 1900. Imagine
        that you stand on a soap box on a city street corner in 1900 and
        you say to the gathering crowd, "By 1955, people will be flying at
        supersonic speeds in sleek aircraft and traveling coast to coast
        in just a few hours." In 1900, it would have been insane to
        suggest that. In 1900, airplanes did not even exist. Orville and
        Wilbur did not make the first flight until 1903. The Model T Ford
        did not appear until 1909.
        Yet, by 1947, Chuck Yeager flew the X1 at supersonic speeds. In
        1954, the B-52 bomber made its maiden flight. It took only 51
        years to go from a rickety wooden airplane flying at 10 MPH, to a
        gigantic aluminum jet-powered Stratofortress carrying 70,000
        pounds of bombs halfway around the world at 550 MPH.

    That is the kind of progress we will continue to see in computing
    power over the next 50 years. We will see progress in [88]transitor
    size and power consumption, packaging, etc. We will also see
    completely new paradigms arise. What these developments mean is a
    [89]dramatic increase in robotic intelligence over the next several
    decades, along with [90]dramatic changes in the world economy.
    See also:
      * [91]Moore's Law continues
      * [92]Moore's law and hard disks
      * [93]Future processors
      * [94]The effects of Moore's law
      * [95]Robotic AI using Neural Nets

    // [96]permalink


Robotic Spacecraft

    Europe has a new spacecraft to ferry supplies up to the International
    Space Station. It is just about ready for its maiden flight, and it is
    completely robotic -- it has no accomodations for human pilots or
    passengers, and burns up on re-entry so it has no use as a "life boat"
    [97]Europe Creates its Own Space Vehicle


    From the article:
    After the launch of the Jules Verne, one ATV will be launched by ESA
        about every year, carrying 7.5 tons of cargo from the Kourou
        launch site in French Guyana. The cylindrical vessel weighs 20
        tons and measures 10.3 meters long (33.79 feet) and 4.5 meters in
        diameter. After a journey of up to five days, it will dock with
        the space station's Russian service module using a precision laser
        tracking system that looks like a scene straight out of "Star

    By eliminating humans from the system, the design and manufacturing
    process is highly simplified -- no life support; no extra weight and
    space for chairs, controls, displays; no need to worry about re-entry;
    No "escape hatches"; etc.
    See also [99]Robots and Nasa and [100]Robotic repair call to Hubble
    taking shape.
    // [101]permalink


Cars that express emotion

     If this takes off, it his will be a very short-lived phenomenon:
    [102]A car that winks, laughs and cries
    From the article:
    Four inventors working for Toyota in Japan have won a patent for a car
        that they say can help drivers communicate better by glaring
        angrily at another car cutting through traffic as well as appear
        to cry, laugh, wink or just look around.
        The inventors explain in the patent that they want drivers to have
        more than a one-note horn and on-off headlights to signal other
        drivers. The horn sounds the same, they write, whether a driver is
        asking for permission to cut in front of another car or showing
        gratitude for having been allowed to cut in front, so other people
        often do not know what the honking is about.

    The reason it will be short-lived is because, within 15 years or so,
    cars will all be driving themselves and communicating with each other
    and a central data center continuously. There will be no need for
    something as primitive and silly as tears. The cars will be sharing
    reams of data at the speed of light.
    See also: [103]Robot drivers.
    // [104]permalink


    6. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/08/31/HNamddualcore_1.html
    7. http://www.vnunet.com/news/1157714
    8. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2004-08/acs-hd081604.php
    9. http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/miniclock.htm
   10. http://radio.weblogs.com/0105910/2004/08/30.html
   11. http://www.vanshardware.com/reviews/2004/04/040405_efficeon/040405_efficeon.htm
   12. http://www.wisconsinpublicservice.com/home/appcalc.asp
   13. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/what-robotic-memory-will-look-like-in.html
   14. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm
   15. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/more-examples-of-moores-law.html
   16. http://www.gm.com/automotive/vehicle_shopping/gm_mobility/vaa_snl.html
   17. http://www.gm.com/automotive/vehicle_shopping/gm_mobility/vaa_snl.html
   18. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robotic-mobility.html
   19. http://www.menafn.com/qn_news_story.asp?StoryId=CqqxtqeienJaWn1jPC2vPBM9MzNnOB3jPBG
   20. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm
   21. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2003/10/robotic-educationnew-champion-of-fire.html
   22. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/04/robots-and-teachers.html
   23. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/05/arrival-of-robotic-hospital.html
   24. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/07/more-hospital-robots.html
   25. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/03/robots-taking-jobs.html
   26. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm
   27. http://concentrationofwealth.blogspot.com/2004/08/poverty-and-concentration-of-wealth.html
   28. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robots-and-jobs.html
   29. http://sg.news.yahoo.com/040823/1/3mlzz.html
   30. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robotic-insects-at-war.html
   31. http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/08/09/japan.robots/
   32. http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/08/09/japan.robots/
   33. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robots-in-japan.html
   34. http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99996286&lpos=home3
   35. http://pc.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/2004/0810/robo84.mpg
   36. http://pc.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/2004/0810/robo23.mpg
   37. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2003/10/robotic-securitymartial-arts-robots.html
   38. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/humanoid-combat-robots-in-japan.html
   39. http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/space/08/23/robot.nasa/index.html
   40. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/robots-and-nasa.html
   41. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/robotic-repair-call-to-hubble-taking.html
   42. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/nasa-robot-rides-segway.html
   43. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/sci_tech/newsid_3579000/3579922.stm
   44. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2004-08/18/content_1816189.htm
   45. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/smallest-robotic-helicopter.html
   46. http://www.spacedaily.com/news/mars-robot-04c.html
   47. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/interplanetary-robots.html
   48. http://www.seedquest.com/News/releases/2004/august/9601.htm
   49. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2003/09/produce-picking-robotsresearchers.html
   50. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/07/agricultural-robots-to-take-over-farm.html
   51. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/farms-and-robots.html
   52. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/tomato-picking-robots.html
   53. http://www.metalstorm.com/04_video_latest.html
   54. http://www.metalstorm.com/04_video_latest.html
   55. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/04/successful-x-45-robotic-bomber.html
   56. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robots-and-guns.html
   57. http://www.computerworld.com/printthis/2004/0,4814,94386,00.html
   58. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/coming-robot-revolution.html
   59. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/TECH/08/10/olympics.security.ap/index.html
   60. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/israel-to-build-robotic-borders.html
   61. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/04/future-of-robotic-police.html
   62. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/04/successful-x-45-robotic-bomber.html
   63. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A33730-2004Aug2.html
   64. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/04/politics/04capitol.html?ei=5006&en=4969bf8531187190&ex=1092283200&partner=ALTAVISTA1&pagewanted=print&position=
   65. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/07/robotic-surveillance.html
   66. http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm
   67. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/olympic-security.html
   68. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/08/06/taiwan_mem_card/
   69. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm#moore
   70. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/keeping-up-with-moores-law.html
   71. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/03/moores-law-and-hard-disks.html
   72. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/effects-of-moores-law.html
   73. http://www.optware.co.jp/english/what_040823.htm
   74. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/what-robotic-memory-will-look-like-in.html
   75. http://www.popsci.com/popsci/science/article/0,12543,676853,00.html
   76. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robotic-assembly.html
   77. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/TECH/08/02/school.internet/index.html
   78. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/04/robots-and-teachers.html
   79. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/kids-and-multi-tasking.html
   80. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm
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   82. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/JacquelineLing.shtml
   83. http://www.electronics-cooling.com/Resources/EC_Articles/MAY96/may96_04.htm
   84. http://compnetworking.about.com/library/weekly/aa051902b.htm
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   92. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/03/moores-law-and-hard-disks.html
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   97. http://www.dw-world.de/english/0,3367,1446_A_1280481_1_A,00.html
   98. http://www.dw-world.de/english/0,3367,1446_A_1280481_1_A,00.html
   99. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/robots-and-nasa.html
  100. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/06/robotic-repair-call-to-hubble-taking.html
  101. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/robotic-spacecraft.html
  102. http://www.iht.com/articles/531134.html
  103. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/02/robotic-drivers.html
  104. http://roboticnation.blogspot.com/2004/08/cars-that-express-emotion.html

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