[Paleopsych] WP: (Toulouse-Lautrec) Paris's Party Animal
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Sat Apr 16 22:33:16 UTC 2005
Paris's Party Animal
Toulouse-Lautrec Delighted in the Demimonde
By Paul Richard
Special to The Washington Post
Sunday, March 20, 2005; Page N01
There's not much yellow sunshine in "Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre"
at the National Gallery of Art. Its glow is greenish. That's partly
the gaslight, partly the absinthe, and don't forget the queasiness of
the morning-after dawn. This is a show about the club scene. It takes
you out all night.
There are many oils, posters, prints and party invitations (one
suggests you check your fig leaf at the door), 10 connected rooms and
250 pictures of dance halls, nightclubs, bars, circuses and brothels,
and the people who hang out in them: artists, drinkers, gawking
tourists, whores. The show sweeps you back in time up the steep
streets of Montmartre, to the hottest spots in Paris, where women are
available and getting stoned is easy and dancing girls kick high.
The atmosphere is charged with showbiz glamor, lust, bohemian license,
art, scruffiness and slumming. You are not far from the thug life. You
meet a lot of painters. Bearded Vincent van Gogh is drinking in the
corner; he has four works in the show. Young Pablo Picasso, who has
five, is up from Barcelona. There's Finland's Eero Järnefelt. Erik
Satie is on piano. You get to go behind the scenes -- Santiago Rusiñol
takes you to the kitchen of the Moulin de la Gallette -- and every now
and then you run into old masters, Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, men who
understood Montmartre before it got hot.
Their pictures aren't alike. It's not style that connects these men --
there are 50 in the show -- but a preference for Montmartre and for
living on the edge. The place is rife with painters. They drive each
other on. One of the most gifted -- Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
(1864-1901), is your sharp-eyed constant guide.
Everybody knows him. He's pretty unmistakable. Lautrec is under five
feet tall. His torso is a normal size, but his brittle, often-broken
legs are as spindly as a boy's. His gait may be unsteady (his walking
stick is hollow, he keeps it filled with booze), but his manners are
delightful and his banter is exquisite. The man is an aristocrat, but
his lips are red and bulbous, and he drools.
Unlike his cousins he couldn't ride to hounds. That sort of life was
closed to him. But Montmartre's was wide open. Had he not been so odd,
he might have been dismissed as yet another well-bred youth going
down, but here, among bohemians, where hierarchies of class and taste
were overturned with glee, his deformities promoted him. He wore them
like a badge.
As he hobbled up the cobbles to the Moulin Rouge or the Moulin de la
Galette, the Chat Noir or the Mirliton, Lautrec blazed a trail. When
Bob Dylan left his home town of Hibbing, Minn., to go to Greenwich
Village, or Packards from Park Avenue purred up to the Cotton Club,
they were treading the same path.
Lautrec was very good. He was fabulous at faces, and at body language,
too. His eerie skill for capturing a likeness, swiftly,
empathetically, still seems a sort of miracle. His drawing and his
painting aren't separate, they're one. And he was heroically
productive. Lots of wild people get over the club scene, but he
didn't, and it killed him. By the age of 33, when he went to the
asylum, he was pretty much a ruin, a paranoid, forgetful, syphilitic
drunk, drawing creepy circus scenes for the doctors. Yet he'd managed
to produce more than 700 canvases, 360 prints and thousands of sharp
drawings. He has 140 pictures on display in this show.
Their candor is terrific. "I do not spare the warts," he wrote, "and I
enjoy adding the hairs that sprout from them."
His painting style is not exceptionally original. The borrowed strands
from which he wove it -- naturalist, impressionist, cartoony, Japanese
-- are pretty clear to see. Lautrec is hardly shallow, but his oils,
seen together, aren't as endless or as deep as those of Manet or Paul
Cezanne. Purely as a painter he isn't quite there at the top with the
grandest of French masters. What makes him so important, and also so
prophetic, is something else about his art.
Lautrec put it all together. To read his pictures rightly is to be as
hip as he was. Beauty in his pictures is almost incidental. That's not
what they're about. What they offer is a joining of rough new music,
sex, mass-market promotions, avant-garde delirium, shocking truth,
celebrity, decadence and dazzle. That potent combination fuels the art
One night in December 1891, 3,000 Toulouse-Lautrec lithographs were
pasted up all over Paris. Part ad, part newspaper cartoon, part
Japanese wood-block print, "Moulin Rouge: La Goulue" looked like
nothing that Parisians had ever seen. La Goulue, "the glutton," was a
young and supple dancer. Lautrec's flatly colored picture shows her on
the dance floor. It is focused on her bloomers. La Goulue was known
for kicking off the top hats of the gentlemen who neared her. Every
now and then, to heighten the maneuver, she'd "forget" to wear her
underpants. Lautrec's poster of her kicking made her famous, too.
They did as much for singer Aristide Bruant. Burant glowered at his
listeners. Often he insulted them. Burant half-talked the songs he
wrote in a near-impenetrable streetwise Paris slang. Historian Richard
Thomson, who with the museum's Philip Conisbee led the team of
scholars that put the show together, says Bruant's voice suggests
Lautrec's posters made Bruant's costume -- the club, the tall black
boots, the hat, the working man's black jacket, and the scarf, a
bright blood red -- a sort of logo of the man.
All the artist needed to summon Yvette Guilbert -- her poignancy, her
fragility, her unforgettable stage presence -- was her trademark long
Slender, red-haired Jane Avril appears often in his lithographs. So
does Loie Fuller, who danced with swirling cloths under changing
colored lights. (The Fuller room that Mark Leithauser has designed for
the exhibit brilliantly evokes her. Its colors shift continually.
There's a movie of her, too.)
Montmartre's performers welcomed Lautrec. He made them famous. Mary
Weaver Chapin, writing in the catalogue, notes that he "developed what
he called furias, intense obsessions, with certain performers who
would enthrall him for a single season or several years." Lautrec, in
his way, was a sort of proto-groupie. To truly make it on the club
scene, to get close to the stars, you have to penetrate the circle and
become part of the entourage. He understood that, too.
No respect or seriousness is granted to the square world, much less to
officialdom in the gallery's display. The politics of France had been
hopeless for a century. Bourgeois respectability, overstuffed and
stifling, wasn't more attractive. No wonder that so many people of all
sorts were attracted to the club scene. It was the other side of the
As museum shows and motel art testify together, late 19th-century
French painting is what Americans like best. Too often what we're
shown is anodyne in spirit -- shimmerings of color, shiverings of
space, sunlight on fresh flowers, sunlight on fresh fruit, glintings
on the Seine. This show is a corrective.
The Chat Noir opened in Montmartre in 1882. Bruant's club, the
Mirliton, closed in 1897. The intervening years are the period of the
show. The world was getting modern. The Eiffel Tower (built in 1889)
now ruled the Paris skyline. Electric lights were shining where once
there had been gas lamps. Shoppers were exploring the extravagant
department stores. The broad and stately avenues that Baron Haussmann
had shoved through the old city made urban life in Paris increasingly
They also made it easier for people of all classes to reach the
windmills and the crooked streets and nightclubs of Montmartre.
The girls wore floor-length skirts then, and complicated hats. Men
affected toppers. But there is something at the core of
"Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre" -- an attitude, a pulsing -- that
feels as new as now.
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