[Paleopsych] Benedict XVI Package

Steve Hovland shovland at mindspring.com
Wed Apr 20 15:50:26 UTC 2005

What's the science connection?

Steve Hovland

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Here's a whole bunch of articles, mostly from the New York Times and wire
services picked up by the NYT. The view I'd most like to get is that of
David Sloan Wilson, the champion of group selection in biology in _Unto
Others_ (co-authored with Elliott Sober) and, more recently, of
functionalism in religion in _Darwin's Cathedral_. He once called himself
"an atheist, but a nice atheist" and holds that religions (at least those
that have survived) have on the whole done good. (I'm still dubious.) He
has dealt with the apparently odd fact that stricter religions attract
more adherents, and Benedict may indeed make Catholicism more strict.

We shall see. Watch for increased competition for strictness from
Protestants and Mormons. The ethnic angle should we watched carefully.
Though Roman Catholicism no longer has a White majority, this is the first
time that the possibility of a non-White pope has been broached. It is
taboo for Europeans to rejoice in winning the ethnic competition; instead
look for an increase in the numbers of European Roman Catholics, or at
least a slowing in their erosion.

I'll provide more coverage tomorrow. I a single commentator says anything
you could not have predicted, let me know at once!


The New York Times > International > International Special > In St.
Peter's, Concerns Over His Doctrine
April 20, 2005


    VATICAN CITY, April 19 - Roman Catholic cardinals reached to the
    church's conservative wing on Tuesday and chose as the 265th pope
    Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, a seasoned and hard-line German theologian
    who served as John Paul II's defender of the faith.

    At 5:50 p.m. in Rome, wispy white smoke puffed from the chimney above
    the Sistine Chapel where the cardinals were meeting, signaling that
    the new pope had been chosen, only a day after the secret conclave
    began. His name was not announced until nearly an hour later, after
    the great bell at St. Peter's tolled, and the scarlet curtain over the
    basilica's central balcony parted and a cardinal stepped out to
    announce in Latin, "Habemus papam!"

    "Dear brothers and sisters," Cardinal Ratzinger, 78, said, speaking
    Italian in a clear voice, spreading his arms wide over the crowd from
    the balcony. "After the great Pope John Paul II, the cardinals have
    elected me, a simple, humble worker in the Lord's vineyard." He
    announced his name as Benedict XVI.

    The unusually brief conclave seemed to suggest that Cardinal Ratzinger
    was a popular choice inside the college of 115 cardinals who elected
    him as a man who shared - if at times went beyond - John Paul's
    conservative theology and seemed ready to take over the job after
    serving beside him for more than two decades.

    It was not clear, however, how popular a choice he was on St. Peter's
    Square. The applause for the new pope, while genuine and sustained
    among many, tapered off decisively in large pockets, which some
    assembled there said reflected their reservations about his doctrinal
    rigidity and whether, under Benedict XVI, an already polarized church
    will now find less to bind it together.

    "I kind of do think he will try to unite Catholics," said Linda
    Nguyen, 20, an American student studying in Rome who had wrapped six
    rosaries around her hands. "But he might scare people away."

    Vincenzo Jammace, a teacher from Rome, stood up on a plastic chair
    below the balcony and intoned, "This is the gravest error!"

    Pope Benedict's well-known stands include the assertion that
    Catholicism is "true" and other religions are "deficient"; that the
    modern, secular world, especially in Europe, is spiritually weak; and
    that Catholicism is in competition with Islam. He has also strongly
    opposed homosexuality, women as priests and stem cell research.

    His many supporters said they believed that the rule of Benedict XVI -
    a scholar who reportedly speaks 10 languages, including excellent
    English - would be clear and uncompromising about what it means to be
    a Roman Catholic.

    "It would be more popular to be more liberal, but it's not the best
    way for the church," said Martin Sturm, 20, a student from Germany.
    "The church must tell the truth, even if it is not what the people
    want to hear. And he will tell the truth."

    While Pope Benedict's views are upsetting to many Catholics in Europe
    and among liberal Americans, they are likely to find a receptive
    audience among the young and conservative Catholics whom John Paul II
    energized. His conservatism on moral issues may also play well in
    developing countries, where the church is growing rapidly, but where
    issues of poverty and social justice are also important. It is unclear
    how much Cardinal Ratzinger, a man with limited pastoral experience,
    and that spent in rich Europe, will speak to those concerns.

    Born on April 16, 1927, in Marktl am Inn, in Bavaria, he was the son
    of a police officer. He was ordained in 1951, at age 24. He began his
    career as a liberal academic and theological adviser to at the Second
    Vatican Council, supporting many efforts to make the church more open.

    But he moved theologically and politically to the right. Pope Paul VI
    appointed him bishop of Munich in 1977 and appointed him cardinal in
    just three months. Taking the chief doctrinal job in 1981, he moved
    with vigor to squash liberation theology in Latin America, cracked
    down on liberal theologians and in 2000 wrote the contentious Vatican
    document "Dominus Jesus," asserting the truth of the Catholic belief
    over others.

    Despite views his opponents consider harsh, he is said to be shy and
    charming in private, a deeply spiritual and meditative man who lives
    simply. "He's very delicate, refined, respectful," Cardinal Fiorenzo
    Angelini, a retired top Vatican official who had worked closely with
    Cardinal Ratzinger, said in an interview on Tuesday night. "He's very
    approachable. He's open to everyone."

    With their choice, cardinals from 52 countries definitively answered
    several questions about the direction of the Roman Catholic Church at
    the start of its third millennium.

    They did not reach outside Europe, perhaps to Latin America, as many
    Vatican watchers expected, to reflect the growth of the church there
    and in Asia and Africa, prompting some disappointed reactions from
    Latin America on Tuesday. They did not choose a candidate with long
    experience as a pastor, but an academic and Vatican insider. They did
    not return the job to Italy, which had held the papacy for 455 years
    before a Pole, Karol Wojtyla, was elected John Paul II in 1978.

    They also did not chose a man as young as John Paul II, who was only
    58 when elected. Cardinal Ratzinger turned 78 last Saturday, the
    oldest pope chosen since Clement XII in 1730. This has led to some
    speculation that cardinals chose him as a trusted, transitional

    John Paul was virtually unknown when he was selected, but Cardinal
    Ratzinger's record is long and articulate in a prolific academic
    career, followed by a contentious tenure as John Paul's doctrinal
    watchdog. Most cardinals know him well from visits to Rome, and he won
    admiration among many colleagues for his crucial role in administering
    the church in the last stages of John Paul's illness.

    In many ways, the cardinals picked John Paul's theological twin but
    his opposite in presence and personality. Where John Paul was
    charismatic and tended to soften his rigid stands with human warmth,
    Cardinal Ratzinger is bland in public and pulls few punches about his

    President Bush on Tuesday recalled the cardinal's homily at John
    Paul's funeral, saying, "His words touched our hearts and the hearts
    of millions." Speaking in Washington, he called Benedict a "man of
    great wisdom and knowledge."

    Only on Monday, as the cardinals attended a Mass before locking
    themselves inside the Sistine Chapel to select a new pope, Cardinal
    Ratzinger took a moment as dean of the college of cardinals and
    celebrant of the Mass to repeat his fears about threats to the faith.
    In retrospect, some observers said, he was laying out what may be the
    focus of his papacy.

    "Having a clear faith, based on the creed of the church, is often
    labeled today as fundamentalism," he said at the Mass. "Whereas
    relativism, which is letting oneself be tossed and 'swept along by
    every wind of teaching,' looks like the only attitude acceptable to
    today's standards."

    Cardinal Ratzinger has often criticized religious relativism, the
    belief - mistaken, he says - that all beliefs are equally true.

    "We are moving toward a dictatorship of relativism which does not
    recognize anything as for certain and which has as its highest goal
    one's own ego and one's own desires," he added.

    In his brief, first address as Benedict XVI on Tuesday from the
    balcony of St. Peter's Basilica, he did not speak of theology or of a
    specific direction for the church.

    "I am comforted by the fact that the Lord knows how to work and act
    even with insufficient instruments," he said. "And above all, I
    entrust myself to your prayers."

    Benedict XVI had dinner on Tuesday night with the other cardinals at
    the Santa Marta residence, built by John Paul II to provide more
    comfortable lodgings for cardinals while locked down in the conclave,
    said Joaquin Navarro-Valls, the chief Vatican spokesman.

    He is to be installed in a Mass at St. Peter's Basilica on Sunday.

    The conclave that selected him on the fourth ballot was among the
    shortest of the last century - the shortest, the election of Pius XII
    in 1939, took only three - and the speed caught many experts by
    surprise. Cardinal Ratzinger has been a divisive figure within the
    church, and reports before the conclave spoke almost unanimously about
    blocs of more progressive cardinals lining up against him.

    In theory, cardinals are not allowed to discuss the inner workings of
    the conclave, but in reality, details seep out later. Several
    cardinals are expected to give interviews or news conferences on
    Wednesday, and may provide some limited glimpses in the dynamic that
    picked Cardinal Ratzinger - and with such speed.

    But already, there was at least one voice of careful reservation.
    Cardinal Godfried Danneels of Belgium, one of the most liberal
    cardinals, who has been critical of Cardinal Ratzinger, skipped the
    dinner specifically to hold a news conference.

    He would not disclose his own vote and did not criticize Cardinal
    Ratzinger directly. But he was not effusive in his praise, either,
    saying that he had "a certain hope" based on the choice of the name
    Benedict. Benedict XV, who appealed for peace during World War I, "was
    a man of peace and reconciliation," Cardinal Danneels said.

    But, he said, "We have to see what's in a name."

    He also warned that being the spiritual leader of one billion Roman
    Catholics was different from parsing out theological matters.

    "When you are a pope, you have to be the pastor of every one and
    everything which happens in the church," he said. "You are not

    But Cardinal Edward M. Egan, archbishop of New York, said Tuesday that
    the process involved a "certain amount of tension and concern" but
    that the conclave made the right choice.

    "I believe that the Lord has something to do with it," Cardinal Egan
    said at a news conference here. "This man is going to do a splendid

    Asked if Cardinal Ratzinger would adopt a harsher tone as pope,
    Cardinal Egan asked a reporter: "Why don't you and I get together in
    one year and we'll talk about it. I have every hope that the tone is
    going to be the one of Jesus Christ."

    Elisabetta Povoledo of The International Herald Tribune and Jason
    Horowitz contributed reporting for this article.

The New York Times > International > International Special > News
Analysis: An Evangelizer on the Right, With His Eye on the Future

An Evangelizer on the Right, With His Eye on the Future


    VATICAN CITY, April 19 - Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was such a close
    ally of Pope John Paul II that he could have easily chosen the name
    John Paul III.

    But those who expect the 78-year-old Pope Benedict XVI simply to
    follow in the footsteps of his predecessor may be in for a surprise,
    say those who know him. They say that he knows he may have a short
    papacy and that he intends to move quickly to put his own stamp on the
    Roman Catholic Church and to reverse its decline in the secular West.

    As John Paul's alter ego, the new German pope has been training for
    this role for decades and knows how all the levers of Vatican power

    "This man is not just going to mind the store," said George Weigel, a
    conservative American scholar who knows both the former and new popes.
    "He is going to take re-evangelization, especially of Europe, very
    seriously. I think this represents a recognition on the part of the
    cardinals that the great battle in the world remains inside the heads
    of human beings - that it's a battle of ideas."

    Sandro Magister, a Vatican expert at the Italian magazine L'Espresso,
    said he expected a thorough housecleaning not unlike the Gregorian
    reforms of the church begun under Pope Gregory VII, who ruled from
    1073 to 1085. Those reforms led to the end of both the married clergy
    and the buying and selling of spiritual favors like indulgences.

    Cardinal Ratzinger had spoken and written forcefully about his sense
    of the threats to the church, both internal and external. Whether they
    are dissident theologians, pedophile priests, "cafeteria Catholics"
    who disregard the ban on artificial birth control, or "celibate" third
    world clergy who keep mistresses, the new pope's solution is likely to
    be a more forceful reiteration of the church's creed and the necessity
    of either living by it, or leaving it.

    "How much filth there is in the church, even among those who, in the
    priesthood, should belong entirely" to God, he said in Rome on Good
    Friday last month.

    He has singled out the spread of "aggressive secularism," especially
    in Europe and North America. In the homily he gave Monday, just before
    the cardinals entered the conclave in which he was chosen, he warned
    about rival forms of belief, from "a vague religious mysticism" to
    "syncretism" to "new sects," a term that Catholics in Latin America
    use to refer to evangelical and Pentecostal churches.

    The new pope is not likely to yield on the primacy of the Roman
    Catholic Church, whether dealing with other Christian denominations or
    Islam. In a document issued in 2000, "Dominus Jesus," the Congregation
    for the Doctrine of the Faith that Cardinal Ratzinger headed said the
    Catholic Church was the only true path to salvation and called other
    faiths "gravely deficient."

    In choosing the name Benedict, this German theologian linked himself
    not only to a long line of former popes but also to St. Benedict, the
    founder of Christian monasticism, who was proclaimed by Pope Paul VI
    in 1964 to be the "patron and protector of Europe." The monasteries
    that St. Benedict founded - and for which he wrote the "Rule," the
    basic guide to monastic living - became the keepers of culture and
    piety in medieval Europe.

    Church scholars suggested that Pope Benedict XVI may be positioning
    himself as the new savior of Europe, rescuing the Continent from what
    he called in his homily on Monday "the dictatorship of relativism."

    Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali, the archbishop of Philadelphia, said
    of the new pope at a news conference on Tuesday, "He intends to do
    everything he possibly can to promote the well-being of Europe,"
    adding that what the Continent most needs is "to prefer nothing to the
    love of Christ - Christocentrality."

    Jim McAdams, professor of political science and director of the
    Nanovic Institute for European Studies at Notre Dame University, said
    the new pope's form of conservatism should not be conflated with that
    of American political conservatives. Faith, he said, "is essential to
    his claims that there is a doctrine of the church, it is clear,
    Catholics should abide by it, and people who feel that that doctrine
    is negotiable are wrong."

    The selection of Cardinal Ratzinger dashed the hopes of those
    Catholics who had wanted a new pope to adopt a whole slate of
    different solutions to the problems of the church, perhaps permitting
    married priests, women as deacons and softer strictures against birth
    control and divorce.

    "The election of a new pope is a moment of hope for the church, and
    this choice is nothing but backwards looking," said Paul F. Lakeland,
    a professor of religious studies at Fairfield University in

    Cardinal Ratzinger functioned for years as the purifier of the
    church's doctrine. For 24 years he headed the Congregation for the
    Doctrine of the Faith, from which he issued condemnations of renegade
    theologians, of modern reinterpretations of church liturgy and of the
    idea that all religions have an equal claim to the truth.

    In recent years, as John Paul grew more and more debilitated by
    Parkinson's disease and old age, Cardinal Ratzinger increasingly
    became the power behind the throne. Bishops from every country who
    visit the Vatican on their regular visits spent more time with him
    than they did with the pope, according to cardinals and Vatican staff.

    It may have been this familiarity that led the cardinals to turn to
    Cardinal Ratzinger as their anchor in this time of transition. The
    Rev. Joseph Augustine Di Noia, an American priest who serves as under
    secretary at the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, told
    reporters last week that he often observed the cardinal listening
    intently to bishops on their visits presenting him with all kinds of
    conundrums on how to apply the faith in their countries. Cardinal
    Ratzinger would respond with "remarkable profundity" and "distinctions
    that are immediately illuminating," Father Di Noia said.

    But it is already clear that the new pope is likely to deepen the
    fissures that exist in the church. The reactions from the crowd in the
    first few minutes after Pope Benedict appeared on the balcony
    overlooking St. Peter's Square suggested the divisions he will have to

    "As soon as I heard the name, I had a letdown, sinking feeling that
    this man is not going to be good for the church," said Eileen, a
    53-year-old Catholic from Boston. She said she was afraid to give her
    last name because she was active in her parish and did not want to
    cause any problems for her priest, or jeopardize her daughter's
    imminent church wedding.

    A few steps away, the Rev. M. Price Oswalt, a priest who serves two
    parishes in Oklahoma City, was exultant about the cardinals' choice.

    "He'll correct the lackadaisical attitudes that have been able to
    creep into the lives of Catholics," he said. "He's going to have a
    German mentality of leadership: either get on the train or get off the
    track. He will not put up with rebellious children."


April 20, 2005

Crowd's Praise Tinged With Questions About Pope's Conservatism

    International Herald Tribune

    VATICAN CITY, April 19 - When the great bell of St. Peter's finally
    rang to confirm that a new pope had been chosen, just after 6 p.m., it
    seemed that all of Rome ran to the Vatican to see who would appear on
    the balcony of the basilica.

    With the bell, Via Della Conciliazione, the boulevard leading to St.
    Peter's Square, was transformed into a strange kind of work-day
    marathon, choked with runners in business suits lugging briefcases and
    young mothers pushing strollers along the stones.

    "The whole building emptied and we just moved as fast as we could,
    risking a heart attack," Giovanni Simeone, an architect, said, still
    panting. Patrizia Maglie, a co-worker, said, "The only thing that
    makes Romans run this way is a new pope - or a soccer match."

    Many were relieved that they had made it in time, after watching with
    uncertainty as the smoke rising from the Sistine Chapel chimney gave
    confusing signals for 10 minutes on their television screens - seeming
    to blow white, then grey, then white again. The many networks that had
    had their cameras trained on the chimney since Monday were at a loss
    to interpret what they saw.

    CNN called the smoke black (no new pope), while ANSA, the Italian news
    agency, called it white (new pope elected). The crowd that had decided
    to wait out the election in St. Peter's Square alternately cheered and
    stood silently in confusion, as the mixed signals poured out against
    the unhelpful gray sky of a drizzly evening.

    But then, the bell's clarifying ring cut through the confusion - and
    thousands of Romans took off. It had been the specific order of Pope
    John Paul II that a bell be added to the traditional announcement to
    clarify the smoke's sometimes ambiguous message - an important
    posthumous intervention, it turned out.

    Forty minutes after the first sign of the late afternoon smoke, the
    tens of thousands who had answered the bell's call shouted, "Bravo!
    Bravo!" in response to the announcement from the basilica's balcony by
    Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estevez that a new pope had been chosen.

    But the reaction was decidedly mixed when the name Cardinal Joseph
    Ratzinger was announced. Some slapped the air and shouted jubilantly.
    Some stood by silently and listened. Some even shook their heads. A
    small number of people wandered out of the square, as if in protest,
    when the new pope spoke.

    Those who supported the election of Cardinal Ratzinger, now Pope
    Benedict XVI, tended to see him as a force of continuity with his
    popular predecessor, John Paul II, even if they were not too enamored
    or familiar with the new pope himself.

    "I'm happy because I respect the ideas and ideals of the previous
    pope, and I think he'll continue just like the old one," said Alberto
    Napoleone of Rome.

    Indeed, the most powerful reaction during the new pope's short speech
    came when he mentioned John Paul II's name, to a chorus of
    enthusiastic whoops and cheers. The reception for Benedict XVI himself
    seemed more measured.

    "This is certainly the most conventional choice, and I would have
    liked to see more a break with tradition," shrugged Simona Corso, a
    university teacher in Rome, who said she would have preferred the
    election of someone from Africa or Latin America.

    But afterward, some well-known Italian conservatives strode through
    the crowd with new confidence, clearly overjoyed with the turn that
    history had taken.

    "Before, we felt like orphans, but now again we have someone we can
    look to!" said Rocco Buttiglione, an Italian government minister whose
    appointment to the European Commission was rejected last year after he
    called homosexuality a sin.

    He said he was thrilled with a choice that he saw as bringing the
    church back to its core moral teachings. Calling the new pope "the
    greatest living theologian and one of the greatest intellectuals of
    Central Europe," Mr. Buttiglione said Cardinal Ratzinger had been the
    "point of reference" in his own intellectual development.

    But others in the crowd were openly distressed. "I am very, very upset
    because I was hoping for a more open pope, one who was more open to
    the problems of the world, and also on things like women's rights,"
    Paolo Tasselli, a retired bank official, said as he listened to the
    new pope's speech.

    He said he had loved Pope John Paul II, who he felt was conservative
    on some issues but "open to the world" in other ways. He said of
    Benedict XVI, "I don't think this new one can do that."

    The crowds filed quickly and quietly out of the square after the new
    pope's short speech - a marked contrast to the raucous pilgrims who
    remained in St. Peter's for hours and days after John Paul II died,
    even after he was finally buried.

    Some here on Tuesday were tourists eager to partake of Rome's other
    treats. "We were at the Pantheon, and when we heard the bells start
    ringing and that there was a new Pope, we jumped in the first cab we
    could find and somehow managed to get over here," said Shelly Charles
    of Ogden, Utah. "It's been incredible to see history happen."

    But most were Catholics who, as they shuffled back into their lives,
    were hard-pressed to explain the silence that fell upon the square on
    Tuesday night. Beloved John Paul was gone and uncertainty lay ahead.
    It was partly the rain, but partly also the abrupt news of a new pope.
    Many said they needed time to digest it all.

    Elisabetta Povoledo of The International Herald Tribune contributed
    reporting for this article.

April 20, 2005

New Pope's Birthplace Becomes a Center of Pride, With Muted Misgivings at
the Edges


    MARKTL AM INN, Germany, April 19 - Here in the tiny birthplace of
    Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the townspeople turned out on Tuesday to
    celebrate his ascension to the helm of the Roman Catholic Church in
    genuine Bavarian style: with a thumping brass band and frothy glasses
    of beer.

    The simple get-together of 150 or so residents could not have been
    more unlike the majestic ritual at the Vatican, where Cardinal
    Ratzinger's election as Pope Benedict XVI was announced to the world.
    Only the band members, in their felt hats and feathers, provided any

    But people here said their native son would have felt at home among
    the police officers, carpenters, laborers and homemakers.

    "He is a highly intelligent man, and kind, but he is also very
    simple," said Joseph Gassner, 68, the director of a local museum. "He
    is an old Bavarian, and we are happy that he will rule in Rome."

    The son of a policeman, Joseph Ratzinger was born in this river town
    on April 16, 1927. He lived in Marktl for only two years, before his
    family moved to another village nearer the Austrian border. His
    father's run-ins with local Nazi officials were said to have kept the
    family on the move.

    Still, Marktl seemed determined to stake its claim to the man who had
    become the first pope of German ancestry in nearly 500 years.

    Residents were eager to show visitors the house in which Cardinal
    Ratzinger was born. It is a handsome building with a peaked roof and a
    plaque next to the front door.

    The windows were dark on Tuesday night, their lace curtains
    illuminated by the glare of photographers' flashbulbs.

    Mr. Gassner said Cardinal Ratzinger visited Marktl occasionally, and
    in 1998 invited a delegation of 55 residents to visit Rome, where they
    were his guests for dinner. He also arranged an audience with Pope
    John Paul II.

    "He has a strong connection to this place," Mr. Gassner said. "We're
    in a part of Bavaria that is very Catholic."

    While the mayor planned the party before any white smoke was spotted,
    there was general astonishment here that Cardinal Ratzinger was
    actually selected. Several people said they had expected the College
    of Cardinals to choose a pope from Latin America or Africa. Others had
    bet on an Italian.

    Maria Spuderer, a 48-year-old homemaker, said she had goosebumps as
    she waited to learn the identity of the new pope. "Our hearts said one
    thing, but our heads said something else," she said.

    In the joyful din here, there were few dissenting voices concerning
    Cardinal Ratzinger or his conservative leanings. "The pope must set a
    path for the church that he believes in," said Engelbert Feldner, 69,
    the town's former brew master. "He can't bend with the times."

    The Bavarian countryside is Germany's Catholic and conservative
    heartland. Crucifixes can be found on the walls of classrooms here,
    and the conservative Christian Social Union has ruled for four
    decades. In other parts of Germany, where the politics are liberal and
    loyalty to the church is weaker, feelings about Cardinal Ratzinger are
    far more ambivalent.

    "A lot of Germans dislike the way he developed as a theologian," said
    Siegfried Wiedenhofer, a former student of Cardinal Ratzinger's who is
    a professor of systematic theology at the University of Frankfurt.
    "His criticism of his German colleagues created an atmosphere of

    Some reformist Catholic groups reacted to Cardinal Ratzinger's
    election with withering criticism.

    "We think the election of Ratzinger is a catastrophe," said Bernd
    Gohring , the head of a group called Church From Below, in remarks
    reported by Reuters. "In the coming years there would be no reforms. I
    think that now even more people will turn their back on the church."

    Even in Munich, where he was archbishop, opinions were divided. While
    respected as a scholar, he did not win a popular following during his
    four years as archbishop and later a cardinal.

    People there recalled Cardinal Ratzinger as an aloof figure. He was
    known for communicating with the priests in his archdiocese through
    letters. He did not like conflict, and shied away from personal
    confrontation, according to people who knew him then.

    At a requiem Mass for Pope John Paul II at the Munich cathedral two
    weeks ago, there was little excitement that a hometown prelate was
    mentioned among the leading candidates for pope.

    "He would never be able to connect with young people like John Paul,"
    said Christian Schuster, 35. "The pope had humility. Cardinal
    Ratzinger has a different image. He is a very powerful man."

    Other people interviewed outside the cathedral said Munich was proud
    of its former bishop. Some also suggested he might confound
    expectations that he will be doctrinaire and reactionary.

    "In his Vatican job, he had to be hard-line," said Martin Holzner, 44.
    "But as pope, he might take a different line."

    Among the young people who turned out here, Cardinal Ratzinger's
    intentions became grist for a lively debate. Rainer Buchmeier, 20,
    said he was sure the new pope would preach in the same orthodox style
    as John Paul II. Christof Six, 19, predicted a change in course.

    Mostly, the young men were jubilant that a German had been chosen for
    such a lofty office. "Germany in modern times has stood for war," Mr.
    Buchmeier said. "Now we can start a new history."

    Geography hangs heavily over Marktl. The town lies only a few miles
    from Braunau, the Austrian border town where Hitler was born. Asked
    whether he was relieved that his region would now be known for someone
    else, Mr. Buchmeier offered a quick response.

    "Braunau is Austria," he said. "Marktl is Germany."



Jewish Groups Mostly Praise Pope as a Partner


    Despite his wartime membership in the Hitler Youth movement, the
    German now known as Pope Benedict XVI won strong praise from Jewish
    leaders yesterday for his role in helping Pope John Paul II mend
    fences between Catholics and Jews.

    "I view him as our most serious partner in the Catholic Church, and he
    has been for the last 26 years," said Rabbi Israel Singer, chairman of
    the World Jewish Congress, which has led the fight for reparations for
    Holocaust survivors as well as the Jewish community's dialogue with
    the Vatican.

    As head of the Vatican office that enforced church doctrine under John
    Paul II, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was a leading force behind the
    Vatican's recognition of Israel in 1993 and John Paul II's atonement
    at the Western Wall in Jerusalem in 2000, Rabbi Singer said.

    "I believe that he is the man who created the theological
    underpinnings for the good relations between Catholics and Jews during
    the last papacy," Rabbi Singer said. "He writes what's kosher and
    what's not kosher for Catholics. He said, 'Not only is it kosher to
    like Jews, but it's kosher to like the state of Israel.' "

    In his memoirs, Cardinal Ratzinger wrote of being forced into the Nazi
    youth movement when he was 14 in 1941, when membership was compulsory,
    and of being drafted into the German Army in 1943.

    "He's never denied the past, never hid it," said Abraham H. Foxman,
    national director of the Anti-Defamation League. "His whole life has
    been atonement for those few years. His whole life is an open book of
    sensitivity against bigotry and anti-Semitism."

    Mr. Foxman cited a column that Cardinal Ratzinger wrote for
    L'Osservatore Romano in 2000 attacking Christian complicity in the
    Holocaust. "It cannot be denied that a certain insufficient resistance
    to this atrocity on the part of Christians can be explained by an
    inherited anti-Judaism present in the hearts of not a few Christians,"
    the cardinal wrote.

    Mr. Foxman said that as a European of the World War II generation,
    Cardinal Ratzinger would probably be more sensitive to Jewish concerns
    than many other cardinals who were on the short list for the papacy.
    Many others expressed similar thoughts.

    "This pope, considering his historical experience, will be especially
    committed to an uncompromising fight against anti-Semitism," Israel's
    foreign minister, Silvan Shalom, said in a statement.

    Rabbi David Rosen, the international director of interreligious
    affairs for the American Jewish Committee, praised Cardinal
    Ratzinger's elevation as "an obvious confirmation of the ideological
    orientation of the previous papacy."

    "I don't think there's one single issue on which the new pope will
    depart from the previous pope," Rabbi Rosen said, "and that includes a
    strong commitment to Catholic-Jewish relations."

    Not surprisingly, more liberal Jews were less impressed with Cardinal
    Ratzinger, who was the force behind a 2000 church document, "Dominus
    Jesus," that called for new Catholic evangelization and argued that
    beliefs other than Christianity were lesser searches for truth.

    Rabbi Michael Lerner, the editor of the progressive Jewish magazine
    Tikkun, wrote yesterday on the magazine's Web site that the cardinal's
    criticism of other religions "is a slippery slope toward anti-Semitism
    and a return to the chauvinistic and triumphalist views that led the
    church, when it had the power to do so, to develop its infamous
    crusades and inquisitions."

    Greg Myre contributed reporting from Jerusalem for this article.



For U.S. Catholics, a New Disagreement


    SAN FRANCISCO, April 19 - Roman Catholics poured into cathedrals and
    parish churches across the United States on Tuesday to celebrate
    Masses of Thanksgiving for the new pope, Benedict XVI, but the choice
    of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger as pope prompted strong disagreement over
    what he would mean for the American church.

    Some liberal Catholics and interest groups criticized the choice as a
    lost opportunity to move the church in a less doctrinaire direction
    because the new pope, a conservative German who was close to the late
    John Paul II, has long held hard-line positions on many divisive
    issues, including birth control, homosexuality and the ordination of
    women. He has also suggested that a vote for a politician who supports
    abortion rights could be sinful, and that American bishops should deny
    such politicians Holy Communion.

    With no less fervor, many conservative Catholics praised Benedict as a
    strong leader whom they expected to shore up the church's teachings
    and serve as a formidable steward of traditional values. Some
    expressed hopes that the new pope would again require that Latin be
    spoken at Mass.

    Perhaps the only point not in contention was that at age 78, Benedict
    was likely to have a much shorter papacy than John Paul, who was 58
    when he was selected in 1978, and therefore less opportunity to leave
    a lasting imprint.

    "Who could follow an act like that?" said Valerie Lienau of Moraga,
    Calif., who was among the 100 or so people who celebrated a
    thanksgiving Mass at the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption in
    San Francisco, the seat of the archdiocese here. "This gives people a
    chance to catch their breath and absorb the legacy of Pope John Paul
    II. The important thing is who will be the pope after Cardinal

    Ms. Lienau, a self-described orthodox Catholic, said she was overjoyed
    at the selection and drove 25 miles to San Francisco to mark the
    occasion in the grandeur of the hilltop cathedral. But when she
    excitedly phoned her son, who is gay, the response was a loud groan.

    "I'm not blind to the challenges," Ms. Lienau said. "I'm very
    sympathetic to the disappointment being felt."

    R. Scott Appleby, a historian on American Catholicism at the
    University of Notre Dame, said many Catholics were dismayed, stunned
    and depressed at the selection of Cardinal Ratzinger.

    "This is their worst nightmare come true," said Professor Appleby, who
    predicted that the selection could lead to a "winnowing" of the
    American church.

    "There is an idea associated with Cardinal Ratzinger and some American
    cardinals and bishops," Professor Appleby said, "that if we face a
    choice as Catholics between a pure, doctrinally orthodox church on the
    one hand and the current situation, which as they see it is a wide
    range of practice and belief and a moral laxity, they would choose a
    smaller, purer, more doctrinally orthodox church."

    Others were more cautious about making predictions.

    Msgr. Royale M. Vadakin, the vicar general of the Archdiocese of Los
    Angeles, the nation's largest, said it was dangerous to assume that
    Pope Benedict XVI would act the same as Cardinal Ratzinger. He said
    that many popes had moved the church in surprising directions, and
    that Cardinal Ratzinger might temper his strict views on church
    teachings when confronted with the wider portfolio of the papacy.

    "We now know the who - Cardinal Ratzinger," Monsignor Vadakin said,
    speaking before the ornate doors of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the
    Angels in Los Angeles. "The what is yet to unfold."

    Some groups critical of the church's handling of sexually abusive
    priests also said it was too early to draw conclusions. Suzanne Morse,
    communications director for Voice of the Faithful, which advocates a
    greater role for the laity in church governance, said that even when
    the new pope was a cardinal, his views on the abuse scandal were

    Ms. Morse said that when the first accusations were made against
    priests, Cardinal Ratzinger "seemed to think the problem was a media
    creation." She added, "But since then, we have seen small but
    significant signs that he has some sense of the scope of the clergy
    sexual abuse crisis."

    Even so, some victims of abuse by members of the clergy in Boston said
    they had been hoping for greater change. Bernie McDaid, who said he
    was abused by a priest from the ages of 11 to 13, said he feared that
    the selection of another European pope amounted to a circling of the
    wagons on the abuse problems.

    Mr. McDaid said an outsider, perhaps from Africa or South America,
    would have been more likely to shake things up.

    "They might have fear of what lies ahead, so they're staying with what
    they know," Mr. McDaid said. "They need drastically to change, now
    more so than at any point in history."

    Clem Boleche, 29, an Augustinian brother from the Philippines who is
    studying to be a priest in the Archdiocese of Boston, said his
    classmates at the Weston Jesuit School of Theology rushed into a room
    with a television to await the announcement of the new pope. When
    Cardinal Ratzinger appeared on the balcony, he said, the room grew

    Brother Boleche said he and many others were hoping for someone less
    conservative and more open to debating church doctrine.

    "I'm honestly not surprised, but I think it would have been more
    exciting, more of a challenge, if he came from a different area,"
    Brother Boleche said. "Latin America is alive. It is open, and is not
    stifling the spirit like many European churches."

    German-Americans acknowledge that the church is less vibrant in
    Europe, but it made them no less proud on Tuesday. Janien Guntermann,
    37, a bartender at a German restaurant in the Lincoln Square
    neighborhood of Chicago, said she cried when she heard of the election
    of Cardinal Ratzinger.

    "I had goose bumps immediately," said Ms. Guntermann, whose parents
    were born in Germany. "I was a little concerned about his age, but he
    seems to be in good health. We have to worry about right now, not
    what's going to happen in 10 years."

    Jim Glunz, the owner of Glunz Bavarian Haus, a German restaurant in
    the same neighborhood, said he was impressed with the new pope's name,
    which he associates with peace and healing.

    "This is the type of atmosphere we need in the world right now," Mr.
    Glunz said. "We need a lot of healing; we need a lot of forgiving."

    For every proud German-American, though, there was at least one
    Italian-American wondering if Italy's turn at the papacy would ever
    come again.

    Inside the Mola Club in Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn, where Italian men
    gather to play cards and smoke cigars, a big-screen TV was tuned to
    RAI, a state broadcast from Italy. The room smelled like wet paint,
    much of the furniture was covered in plastic, and everything was
    pushed to the center of the room.

    Most of the men were out in the garden, but Sal Chimienti, 68, sat at
    a small table in front the TV.

    "I'm a Catholic," he said, explaining his devotion to the TV

    As the ceremonies in Rome progressed, Mr. Chimienti was joined by Al
    Sale, 50, who runs a grocery store a block up Court Street.

    The new pope appeared on the screen, and Mr. Sale clapped, then said,
    "Still, we have no Italian pope."

    Reporting for this article was contributed by Michael Brick and
    Nicholas Confessore from New York, John M. Broder from Los
    Angeles,Gretchen Ruethling from Chicago, Robin Toner from
    Washingtonand Katie Zezima from Boston.




White or Black? Maybe Beige? As Smoke Detectors, the Anchors Were All Too


    Infallibility is expected of popes and television anchors, so there
    was something arresting about the confused scramble to interpret the
    first creamy wisps of smoke floating from the Vatican chimney

    "Darned if it doesn't look darker," said Charles Gibson of ABC, trying
    to square the appearance of white smoke with the absence of
    confirmation from the Vatican bell tower. All the networks went live
    at the first puff of smoke and as they waited, watched and deliberated
    (beige? charcoal?), none of the anchors could be certain of what they
    were seeing.

    "Can you hear bells?" Mr. Gibson asked David Wright, an ABC
    correspondent on the ground at St. Peter's.

    "I can't hear you," Mr. Wright replied.

    "Yes, but can you hear bells?" Mr. Gibson asked, more loudly.

    "I'm trying to tell people just what is going on and I don't have the
    faintest idea," Mr. Gibson said ruefully.

    Those long minutes of suspense and clammy uncertainty turned the
    conclusion of the conclave into a riveting spectacle - no other
    television event is as rare or as murky. Football announcers may not
    know which team will win the Super Bowl, but they know the rules, are
    fairly confident it will take place every year and can draw on
    previous experience. Oscar presenters have a similar advantage.
    Perhaps only Election Night in 2000 was as fraught with uncertainty
    and, even then, there were only two likely presidential candidates and
    no lifetime tenure.

    The conclave, moreover, offered the ultimate clash between modern
    technology and ancient Roman Catholic ritual - and 21st-century
    television thrives on it. Why else would a Roman Curia capable of
    announcing the death of John Paul II by text message let the cameras
    of the world divine that a new pope had been chosen by reading smoke
    signals and chimes.

    For years, networks from all over the world have been paying
    exorbitant rents for Roman terraces with an unobstructed view of the
    roof of St. Peter's Basilica. Satellite transmission, 24-hour cable
    news stations, cellular phones and other advancements were supposed to
    keep guesswork out of the process. As soon as the conclave began, CNN
    and CNN.com kept a Vatican ChimneyCam, live, on their screens as a
    multimedia smoke alert. And yet, yesterday, the crowds in St. Peter's
    Square seemed to know what had happened long before the television

    Except for the speed with which the cardinals settled on a successor
    to John Paul II, there was little surprise to the election results.
    The head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith was a
    leading candidate going into the conclave, and one of the best-known
    cardinals. Or, as Chris Matthews put it on MSNBC, the new pope "is not
    a new kid on the block."

    So television reporters were ready and eager to describe what kind of
    pope the former cardinal was likely to be. Trying to sum up Cardinal
    Joseph Ratzinger as a guardian of strict orthodoxy and the leading
    opponent of dissent, John Roberts of CBS said he was sometimes known
    as "God's Rottweiler." On CNN, Wolf Blitzer cited descriptions of him
    as "Cardinal No."

    Reporters and analysts had boned up on Cardinal Ratzinger's biography,
    as well as papal history, and easily cited all kinds of Vatican
    arcana, from the number of previous German popes to the unexpected
    longevity of Leo XIII, who was elected in 1878 at the age of 68 as a
    "transitional" pope and instead reigned for 25 years.

    But many stumbled as they tried to call the pope by his correct new
    name. One called him "Cardinal Benedict XVI," another said "Pope
    Ratzinger" and still another referred to him as "John Benedict XVI."

    Television screens quickly filled with instant Ratzinger experts,
    priests and biographers who could describe his theology and
    personality (a good listener, tough on heretics). The words "humble"
    and "pastoral" quickly became buzzwords on every network.

    It was those few moments of uncertainty, however, that haunted those
    who had to hold forth, live, on the air, for minutes with no idea what
    color smoke was floating to the sky. Mr. Blitzer on CNN kept going
    back to the tape.

    "It's clearly white," he said. "In hindsight."



>From Wartime Germany to the Papacy


    ROME, April 19 - The man who has become Pope Benedict XVI was a
    product of wartime Germany, but also of a deeply Roman Catholic
    region, Bavaria.

    As the Nazis strengthened their stranglehold on Germany in the 1930's,
    the strongly Catholic family of Joseph Ratzinger moved frequently
    among villages in rural Bavaria.

    "Unemployment was rife," he wrote in his memoir, "Milestones." "War
    reparations weighed heavily on the German economy. Battles among the
    political parties set people against one another." His father, he
    wrote, was a determined anti-Nazi.

    The Roman Catholic Church, Cardinal Ratzinger recalled, was his
    bulwark against the Nazi regime, "a citadel of truth and righteousness
    against the realm of atheism and deceit."

    But he could not avoid the realities of the day. In an episode certain
    to be scrutinized anew, Joseph Ratzinger was briefly and
    unenthusiastically a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens,
    after membership became mandatory in 1941, according to a biography by
    John L. Allen Jr., who covers the Vatican for The National Catholic

    In 1943, he and fellow seminarians were drafted. He deserted in 1945
    and returned home, but was captured by American soldiers and held as a
    prisoner of war for several months, Mr. Allen wrote.

    Along his way to the papacy, he built a distinguished academic career
    as a theologian, and then spent nearly a quarter century as Pope John
    Paul II's theological visionary - and enforcer of strict positions on
    doctrine, morality and the primacy of the faith.

    In addition to his subtle and powerful intellect lies a spiritual,
    almost mystical side rooted in the traditional Bavarian landscape of
    processions, devotions to Mary and small country parishes, said
    John-Peter Pham, a former Vatican diplomat who has written about
    Cardinal Ratzinger.

    "It's a Christianity of the heart, not unlike that of the late pope's
    Poland," he said. "It's much different than the cerebral theology
    traditionally associated with German theology."

    His experience under the Nazis - he was 18 when the war ended - was
    formative in his view of the function of the church, Mr. Allen said.

    "Having seen fascism in action, Ratzinger today believes that the best
    antidote to political totalitarianism is ecclesiastical
    totalitarianism," he wrote. "In other words, he believes the Catholic
    Church serves the cause of human freedom by restricting freedom in its
    internal life, thereby remaining clear about what it teaches and

    Totalitarianism, indeed, critics might say.

    They cite a long list of theologians Cardinal Ratzinger has chastised
    for straying from official doctrine; his condemnation of "relativism,"
    or the belief that other denominations and faiths lead equally to
    salvation; his denunciation of liberation theology, homosexuality and
    feminism; his attempt to rein in national bishops conferences; his
    belief that the Second Vatican Council of the 1960's, which led to a
    near-revolutionary modernization of the church, has brought corrosive

    In effect, he has argued for a purer church at the expense of size.

    Hans Kung, one of the theologians who ran afoul of him, has called his
    ideology a "medieval, anti-Reformation, anti-modern paradigm of the
    church and the papacy."

    "To have him as pope will be considered by many Catholics to mean that
    the church is absolutely unable to reform itself," he said, "and that
    you are not to have any hope for the great process of the Second
    Vatican Council."

    Along with Bavaria and Nazism, a third influence helped shape the new
    pope: the leftist-inspired student unrest of the 1960's at the dawn of
    domestic German terrorism. He said it made him realize that,
    sometimes, there is no room for discussion.

    Even before becoming the supreme pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church,
    Cardinal Ratzinger wielded immense power. John Paul appointed him
    prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the former
    Holy Office. It was a deeply personal choice, made without his usual
    wide consultation.

    Their regular Friday discussions were said to be often freewheeling.

    The cardinal expanded the power of the role, ruling on a wide range of
    subjects. He was the first professional theologian in the job in more
    than a century, one equipped with a strong intellect and decisiveness.

    "This is a man who can deal with a lot of difficult material without
    becoming upset," said the Rev. Augustine Di Noia, who was the under
    secretary of the congregation.

    John Paul was said to have given Cardinal Ratzinger wide latitude;
    some called him the "vice pope." Other Vatican officials have
    suggested he served as a lightning rod, diverting criticism from the

    As dean of the College of Cardinals, he was also the most powerful of
    them - their leader in the period after John Paul's death, the
    celebrant of his funeral Mass and their guide during the conclave.

    Behind his fearsome reputation lies a "a simple person," Father Di
    Noia said. "He chuckles. There's a simple childlike quality to him."
    Others speak of his dry sense of humor and modest demeanor.

    He is a diminutive man with deep-set eyes and white hair, and speaks
    Italian - the language of the Vatican - with a strong German accent.
    Unlike John Paul, he had little time for sports or strenuous activity,
    other than walks in the mountains.

    Until now, he lived in a small apartment near the Vatican and walked
    to work. He was perhaps the best-known cardinal, appearing at Vatican
    news conferences and known to many through his books and profiles of
    him in newspapers.

    Joseph Alois Ratzinger was born April 16, 1927, in Marktl am Inn in
    Bavaria, the youngest of three children. It was a part of a region
    long within the orbit of Salzburg, in Austria, Mozart's birthplace. A
    pianist, Cardinal Ratzinger expressed a great love for the composer.

    Partly because of his father's opposition to the Nazis, he wrote, the
    family moved four times before Joseph was 10. His mother was a hotel

    He entered the seminary in 1939. After conscription, he served in an
    antiaircraft unit. He has said the unit was attacked by Allied forces
    in 1943, but he did not take part in that battle because a finger
    infection had prevented him from learning to shoot. After about a year
    in the antiaircraft unit he was drafted into the regular military,
    sent home and then called up again before deserting in late April
    1945, according to Mr. Allen. He told Time magazine in 1993 that while
    stationed near Hungary, he saw Hungarian Jews being sent to death

    In discussing his war experience, Mr. Allen wrote that he publicly
    expressed little of the explicit horrors that were around him; of the
    resistance to the Nazis by groups other than Catholics; or of the
    anti-Semitism of a prominent great-uncle.

    In the fall after the war ended in 1945, he returned to the seminary,
    where his brother, Georg - who was soon to be a prominent church music
    director - was also enrolled. The brothers were was ordained in 1951;
    two years later Joseph Ratzinger earned his doctorate at the
    University of Munich. His dissertation was titled "The People and
    House of God in St. Augustine's Doctrine of the Church." He earned his
    teaching licentiate in 1957.

    One of his most influential books was an early work from his
    university lectures, "Introduction to Christianity." He also wrote
    "Dogma and Revelation" and "Eschatology."

    In his view, the church does not exist so that it can be incorporated
    into the world, but so as to offer a way to live. It is not a human
    edifice but a divinely created one. And theology is not a dry academic
    exercise. Theologians should support church teaching to serve the
    faithful, not depart from it.

    His career as an academic began immediately after he was licensed. He
    spent two years teaching dogma and fundamental theology at the
    University of Freising and 10 years at the University of Bonn. He also
    had stints at the universities Munster and Tubingen. Alienated by the
    student protests at Tubingen, he moved to Regensburg in 1969.

    In a 1985 interview with The New York Times, he called the protests "a
    radical attack on human freedom and dignity, a deep threat to all that
    is human." Such actions taught him, he said, that to discuss terror
    was to collaborate with it. "I learned where discussion must stop
    because it is turning into a lie and resistance must begin in order to
    maintain freedom."

    Already in 1962, at 35, he achieved prominence at the highest levels
    of the church. A mutual acquaintance introduced him to Cardinal Joseph
    Frings, archbishop of Cologne. Cardinal Frings asked him to serve as
    his expert assistant at the Second Vatican Council. Father Ratzinger
    was credited with pushing Cardinal Frings to join French and other
    German bishops in standing firm against the Vatican Curia members who
    wanted to hold back council reforms. He also helped write a speech
    criticizing the Holy Office, the predecessor to his future home, the
    Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The speech called it
    outmoded and a "source of scandal to the world."

    Yet within a decade he came to express deep worry that the church was
    drifting to the left and losing its ecclesiastical rigor.

    In 1977, Pope Paul VI appointed him archbishop of Munich, and made him
    a cardinal in just three months. That same year, he met the future
    John Paul II, although some have said that they might have met at the
    Second Vatican Council. They both spent their youths under
    totalitarianism, but they also had a feeling that the church was
    adrift in a permissive sea, and that there was a need to return to the

    John Paul appointed him to the doctrinal congregation in 1981. Soon,
    he was taking action against liberation theology, the Marxist-inspired
    movement of priests in Latin America to help the poor by radical
    restructuring of society. The congregation denounced the movement in
    1984; Leonardo Boff, a Brazilian liberation theologian, was summoned
    and silenced for a year.

    Other theologians were chastised. Charles E. Curran, a theologian at
    Catholic University of America, was barred in 1986 from teaching at a
    Catholic institution for refusing to recant his challenge to church
    teaching on sexuality. The Rev. Tissa Balasuriya, a Sri Lanka
    theologian, was excommunicated in 1997 after being accused of
    challenging fundamental Catholic tenets like original sin and the
    Immaculate Conception. More than a dozen others have been disciplined
    by the congregation.

    With the end of the cold war, Cardinal Ratzinger turned his attention
    to fighting "relativism." His congregation's 2000 declaration "Dominus
    Jesus" - "Lord Jesus" - said other religions could not offer
    salvation, and were "gravely deficient." An uproar from other
    religious leaders followed, but John Paul publicly defended the

    Even as he celebrated the Mass leading into the conclave on Monday
    morning, Cardinal Ratzinger called relativism a "dictatorship" under
    which the ego and personal desires are paramount.

    One of his major efforts, which many say has been successful, was to
    sap national bishops' conferences of power - and even here he harkened
    back to the war. The German conference issued "wan and weak"
    condemnations of Nazism; the truly powerful documents, he said, "came
    from individual courageous bishops."



In Selection of New Pope, Third World Loses Out


    RIO DE JANEIRO, April 19 - Not this time, not yet. Though a majority
    of Roman Catholics now live in Latin America, Africa and Asia, those
    among the faithful who were openly hoping for a pope from the
    developing world were disappointed.

    But that sense of popular disappointment stood in contrast to the
    notable enthusiasm for the selection of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger
    among the episcopal conferences in every country in this region, which
    speak in the name of Latin America's hundreds of bishops.

    Dominated by theological conservatives whom Pope John Paul II
    appointed, the conferences can now expect increased Vatican support in
    their efforts to counter two important challenges: evangelical
    Protestantism and the remnants of liberation theology.

    At the popular level, the initial response to the designation of
    Cardinal Ratzinger as the new pope was muted throughout Latin America,
    where 480 million of the world's 1.1 billion Catholics live.

    Television networks that had been covering the conclave live from Rome
    in anticipation that someone from this region might be chosen as pope
    quickly returned to their normal programming after the announcement.
    Newspapers and radio stations recalled that the new pope's nicknames
    include Cardinal No and the Grand Inquisitor, references to his former
    role as enforcer of church doctrine. "They were never going to elect a
    pope from Latin America or Africa," Guilherme Marra, a salesman here,
    lamented Tuesday afternoon. "The church is frozen in time," Mr. Marra,
    37, complained. "Imagine electing a radical pope who is against

    But among the church hierarchy, at least here in Brazil, which has the
    world's largest Roman Catholic population, the prospect of an even
    more doctrinaire and conservative successor to John Paul II has
    already emboldened traditionalists. Last week, for example, two
    cardinals criticized President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, saying that
    his beliefs were "not Catholic but chaotic" and that he was "not a
    model Christian."

    Like the leaders of several other Latin American countries, Mr. da
    Silva has taken positions that differ from church teachings on
    abortion, homosexuality, contraception and stem cell research.
    Cardinal Ratzinger's support for an unyielding stance on those and
    other issues would seem likely to increase the prospect of conflicts
    between church and state.

    It is not clear how Pope Benedict XVI intends to respond to the growth
    of Islam in Africa and Asia, where most of the increase in the number
    of Catholics during the papacy of John Paul II occurred. But the
    Catholic flock in those places tends to be more doctrinally
    conservative than in Latin America, and expressed fewer reservations
    about the choice of Cardinal Ratzinger.

    "You need a man of values," said Alfred Jantjies, a South African
    truck driver. "It's no good to have a man in the church who lets in
    wrong ideas, like women priests or priests getting married. A man of
    God must know he has taken a tough life and stick to it without trying
    to be all modern. The new pope sounds like a man who understands what
    worked in the past and won't try and change it."

    In the days before the conclave, some priests and bishops in Latin
    America made public their doubts about Cardinal Ratzinger's
    willingness to bring about the change that they thought the church
    needed. As John Paul II's right-hand man, he was often seen as the
    standard-bearer of what some critics in the region are calling
    "Wojtylism without Wojtyla," a reference to Karol Wojtyla, who became
    John Paul II.

    "I don't think he has the charisma of John Paull II with the masses,
    because he has always been an intellectual," said the Rev. Jesus
    Vergara, the director general of Centro Tata Vasco, a Jesuit
    institution in Mexico City. "For example, the trips of John Paul II
    throughout Latin America. Well, Latin America is going to feel a lot
    of grief because I don't think Ratzinger has the personality to win
    over most of the people in Latin America as John Paul did."

    As leader of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Cardinal
    Ratzinger has been very much a known quantity to all cardinals and
    bishops and to many priests. In that capacity, he has played an
    important role in suppressing liberation theology, which draws on
    Marxism in its call for the church to follow a "preferential option
    for the poor" and transform unjust structures that perpetuate social
    inequality and poverty.

    "It seems to me that we need not a theology of liberation, but a
    theology of martyrdom," he said in 1997.

    In 1984, for instance, it was Cardinal Ratzinger who oversaw the
    Vatican decree that forced Leonardo Boff, a former Franciscan friar
    and a leading theoretician of liberation theology, to silence himself
    for "an opportune period." Dr. Boff, once a student of Cardinal
    Ratzinger, was deemed to lack "serenity" and "moderation" in his
    writings, which were said to be guided not by faith but by "principles
    of an ideological nature."

    Dr. Boff, who resigned as a cleric in 1992 and now teaches theology
    and ethics at a state university here, has complained of what he
    called "the arrogance and doctrinal fundamentalism" of John Paul II.
    But he has been an even sharper critic of Cardinal Ratzinger,
    describing him in a recent essay as "the exterminator of the future of
    ecumenism" and "the petrified expression" of the dominance of the
    Roman Curia within the church.

    With Cardinal Ratzinger at the helm of the church, conservatives can
    expect even greater support for movements like Opus Dei and Communion
    and Liberation, which are strong in places like Chile and Peru. In
    2001, John Paul II appointed the first Opus Dei member to become a
    cardinal, Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne of Lima, and seven of that
    country's bishops belong to Opus Dei.

    Bishop Raul Vera of Saltillo, who in the 1990's practiced the
    liberation theology in southern Mexico that was criticized by Pope
    John Paul II, said the cardinals had made a safe choice and turned a
    blind eye to the confusion in the Americas about what direction the
    church was taking.

    "The cardinals were thinking about security," he said. "And they were
    also thinking about someone who would complete the papacy of John Paul

    The new pope will also be under pressure from conservative clergy and
    lay people to act to brake the advance of evangelical Protestantism,
    which is on the march everywhere in Latin America. Here in Brazil the
    percentage of people declaring themselves as Catholics has fallen from
    more than 90 percent in 1970 to barely 70 percent, with a
    corresponding increase in the number of Protestants.

    Not only has the new pope criticized Protestantism on a doctrinal
    basis, he has also accused the World Council of Churches of "harming
    the life of the gospel" by offering financial assistance to what he
    called "subversive movements" in Latin America. While that may animate
    conservatives in the church, it may also increase tensions.

    "For some who would be looking for strong, centralized control, an
    orthodox church focused on orthodoxy in the faith, those people I
    think will be very happy," said Bishop Kevin Dowling, an official of
    the Southern African Bishops Conference. "For people who were looking
    for a church that would be open to debate and discussing and
    reflecting on some of the crucial issues of modern times, those people
    may have concerns."

    Michael Wines contributed reporting from Johannesburg for this
    article, and James C. McKinley Jr. from Mexico City.



The New Pope on the Issues

    On Secularism

    "We have moved from a Christian culture to aggressive and sometimes
    intolerant secularism," Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger said in November
    2004 in an interview with the daily La Repubblica. "A society from
    which God is completely absent self-destructs. We saw that in the
    major totalitarian regimes of last century."

    On Other Religions

    He has repeatedly condemned "religious pluralism" and relativism, the
    idea that other religions can hold the way to salvation, and he has
    been instrumental in blocking the advance of priests who support such
    views. In 2000 the Vatican document "Dominus Jesus," in which Cardinal
    Ratzinger was the driving voice, called for a new Catholic evangelism
    and described other faiths as lesser searches for the truth.

    "This truth of faith does not lessen the sincere respect which the
    Church has for the religions of the world," the document said, "but at
    the same time, it rules out, in a radical way, that mentality of
    indifferentism characterized by a religious relativism which leads to
    the belief that 'one religion is as good as another.' "

    The Sex Abuse Scandal

    The new pope has often denounced immorality within the church. He
    wrote the meditations read aloud during the Good Friday procession
    this year that condemned "filth" in the church. He has been scathing,
    however, about news coverage of the scandal. In December 2002, Zenit
    News Services quoted him as saying that fewer than 1 percent of
    priests were abusers and that American news coverage was a campaign
    against the church.

    "One comes to the conclusion that it is intentional, manipulated, that
    there is a desire to discredit the church," he said.

    Women in the Church

    Cardinal Ratzinger wrote the church statement in August 2004 that
    repeated the prohibition against women as priests and criticized
    feminism as ignoring biological differences. It also called on
    governments to "manage conditions so that women do not need to neglect
    their families if they want to pursue a job."

    Sexuality and Marriage

    He has been a leading voice in the church for enforcing traditional
    doctrine on homosexuality, extramarital sex and artificial birth
    control, writing a letter to American bishops in 1988, for example,
    criticizing their acceptance of condoms to stop the spread of AIDS,
    saying the American view supported "the classical principle of
    tolerance of the lesser evil."

    He has condemned efforts to legalize same-sex marriage as "destructive
    for the family and for society" and as a dangerous separation of
    sexuality and fertility. A church statement in July 2003 in which he
    was listed as principal author said: "There are absolutely no grounds
    for considering homosexual unions to be in any way similar or even
    remotely analogous to God's plan for marriage and family. Marriage is
    holy, while homosexual acts go against the natural moral law."

    Abortion and Euthanasia

    Benedict has insistently spoken out against abortion, euthanasia,
    stem-cell research and cloning. In his book "God and the World,"
    published in October 2000, he painted a grim picture of the results of
    genetic research, writing, "There is a last boundary that we cannot
    cross without becoming the destroyers of creation itself."

    In July 2004, the magazine L'Espresso released part of an unissued
    memorandum to American bishops in which he gave guidelines for denying
    Communion to politicians who supported abortion rights.



April 20, 2005


The First Words of the New Pope

    Following is a transcript of Pope Benedict XVI's address yesterday at
    the Vatican, as recorded and translated from the Italian by Reuters:

    Dear brothers and sisters:

    After the great Pope John Paul II, the cardinals have elected me, a
    simple, humble worker in the Lord's vineyard.

    I am comforted by the fact that the Lord knows how to work and act
    even with insufficient instruments. And above all, I entrust myself to
    your prayers.

    With the joy of the risen Lord and confidence in his constant help, we
    will go forward. The Lord will help us, and Mary, his most holy
    mother, will be alongside us.

    Thank you.



Key Dates in Papacy


    The following articles highlight signifigant events during the papacy
    of Pope John Paul II going back to 1978. Also, [30]search previous
    articles on the pope.

    November 6, 1978 | PDF Format
    [31]After Two Conclaves, a Polish Pope
    The election of Pope John Paul II, a strong-willed, vigorous Polish
    prelate and the first non-Italian head of the Roman Catholic Church in
    455 years, has given a new dimension to the Vatican's global political

    January 27, 1979 | PDF Format
    [32]Over a Million in Mexico City Excitedly Greet the Pope
    Pope John Paul II was given an exicted welcome by more than one
    million Mexicans when he arrived here today to open a crucial Latin
    American bishops' conference on his first trip abroad since becoming
    Pope four months ago.

    June 3, 1979 | PDF Format
    [33]Pope Gets Big Welcome in Poland, Offers Challenge to the
    Pope John Paul II returned home to Poland to a tumultuous weklcome
    today and immediately pledged the Roman Catholic Church to "serve
    people in the temporal dimension of their life and existence."

    October 3, 1979 | PDF Format
    [34]A City Opens Its Heart to John Paul
    "Nasza Modlitwa Z Papiezem" (Our Prayer Is With the Pope), read the
    Polish-language banners and badges, whether from Westchester County or
    Wauekegan, Ill. "Totus Tuus Papa" (I Am All Yours, Pope), other
    banners promised in Latin.

    May 14, 1981
    [35]Pope Is Shot in Car in Vatican Square; Surgeons Term Condition
    Pope John Paul II was shot and seriously wounded yesterday as he was
    standing in an open car moving slowly among more than 10,000
    worshipers in St. Peter's Square.

    April 14, 1986
    [36]Pope Speaks in Rome Synagogue, in the First Such Visit on Record
    By E.J. DIONNE Jr.
    Pope John Paul II, embracing the world's Jews as ''our elder
    brothers,'' today paid the first recorded papal visit to a synagogue
    and condemned persecution and displays of anti-Semitism ''at any time
    and by anyone.''

    December 2, 1989
    [37]Gorbachev Visits Pope at Vatican; Ties Are Forged
    With an agreement to begin official relations and a pledge of expanded
    religious freedom for Soviet citizens, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev
    joined hands today with Pope John Paul II.

    May 3, 1991
    [38]Papal Encyclical Urges Capitalism to Shed Injustices
    In a major encyclical addressing the economic questions raised by the
    upheaval in Eastern Europe in 1989, Pope John Paul II warned
    capitalist nations yesterday against letting the collapse of Communism
    blind them to the need to repair injustices in their own economic

    November 1, 1992
    [39]Vatican Science Panel Told By Pope: Galileo Was Right
    Moving formally to rectify a wrong, Pope John Paul II acknowledged in
    a speech today that the Roman Catholic Church had erred in condemning
    Galileo 359 years ago for asserting that the Earth revolves around the

    October 6, 1993
    [40]Encyclical on Morality Doesn't Stifle Debate, Church Officials Say
    Roman Catholic officials at the Vatican and in the United States
    presented Pope John Paul II's new encyclical, "Veritatis Splendor"
    ("The Splendor of Truth"), in very conciliatory tones today. They
    insisted that his statement on fundamental moral theory was intended
    to encourage reflection and discussion of basic principles of
    morality, not to cut off debate.

    December 31, 1993
    [41]Diplomatic Pact Signed by Israel and the Vatican
    Formally recognizing each other after decades of diplomatic aloofness
    and centuries of frequent Jewish-Catholic rancor, Israel and the
    Vatican signed an agreement today to establish diplomatic relations.

    March 27, 2000
    [42]Ending Pilgrimage, the Pope Asks God for Brotherhood
    Pope John Paul II approached the Western Wall, reached out to touch
    its stone, and tucked into a crevice a note to God.

    April 24, 2002
    [43]Pope Offers Apology to Victims of Sex Abuse by Priests
    Pope John Paul II opened meetings with American cardinals on clerical
    sex scandals with an apology to victims.

    June 6, 2003
    [44]Vatican Traveler in Croatia, Reaching 100, Trips, That Is
    Pope John Paul II's visit to Croatia marks the 100th time that he has
    left Vatican City for a foreign adventure.

    April 3, 2005 | Obituary
    [45]Pope John Paul II, Church Shepherd and a Catalyst for World Change
    Pope John Paul II captivated much of humanity and reshaped the church
    with a heroic vision of a combative, disciplined Catholicism.


   31. http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/international/19781106pope.pdf
   32. http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/international/19790127pope.pdf
   33. http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/international/19790603pope.pdf
   34. http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/international/19791003pope.pdf
   35. http://www.nytimes.com/1981/05/14/international/europe/14POPE.html
   36. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/04/14/international/europe/14POPE.html
   37. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/02/international/europe/02POPE.html
   38. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/05/03/international/europe/03POPE.html
   39. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/01/international/europe/01POPE.html
   40. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/06/national/06POPE.html
   43. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/24/national/24VATI.html
   44. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/06/international/europe/06POPE.html
   45. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/03/international/europe/03pope.html

The New York Times > Opinion > Editorial: The New Pope

April 20, 2005


The New Pope

    Since almost all of the cardinals who met to choose a new pope were
    appointees of John Paul II, it's probably not all that surprising that
    they chose someone as close as possible to the late pontiff. Cardinal
    Joseph Ratzinger, the new Pope Benedict XVI, worked in close
    partnership with his predecessor and shared a belief in staunchly
    defending orthodox Catholic doctrine. There is no reason to expect any
    change, of course, for the church when it comes to matters like birth
    control, priestly celibacy or homosexuality. Those are issues of
    faith, properly left to the faithful. On matters of public policy,
    however, all of us have reason to be concerned about the opinions of
    the leader of more than one billion Catholics.

    For instance, as a cardinal, the new pope inserted himself last year
    into the political debate over allowing Turkey into the European
    Union. He was quoted as saying that adding Turkey, a predominantly
    Muslim nation of 70 million people, would dilute the culture of what
    he considers a Christian continent and that Turkey should align itself
    instead with other Muslim nations. At a time when few things are more
    important than reconciling the Islamic world with the non-Islamic
    West, it would be extremely disturbing if the pope became an
    unnecessary wedge. It would also be out of keeping with the heritage
    of John Paul II - who, for all his doctrinal conservatism, was a man
    known for his outreach to people of other faiths.

    Like his predecessor, Benedict XVI is not Italian, but he continues
    the age-old tradition of European popes at a time when the church's
    membership is increasingly outside Europe. Its future appears to lie
    in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in the developing countries
    of Asia and Africa, where Pope John Paul II was so beloved for his
    warm, fatherly personality.

    At least as a cardinal, Benedict XVI was more courtly than
    charismatic. He is an accomplished polyglot who is said to speak 10
    languages, a theologian of great stature and a man who has had an
    academic as well as an ecclesiastical career. Anyone who heard his
    homage at the late pope's funeral had to have been impressed by his
    eloquence and devotion to John Paul. It is possible that the cardinals
    who picked him hoped he would protect the church's core from doctrinal
    corruption at a time when more and more of the faithful live in places
    where congregations are used to adapting their religions to reflect
    local customs and beliefs.

    The new pope is, at 78, not likely to serve long enough to have the
    kind of impact his predecessor had. But the church has seen men
    elected as supposedly transitional figures in the past turn into
    agents for sweeping change. The beloved Pope John XXIII was a recent
    example. And in an era as fraught with peril as today's, anyone who
    occupies the throne of St. Peter is given overwhelming power to do
    good and responsibility to prevent harm. Today, the world can only
    wish Pope Benedict XVI strength and inspiration as he takes on this
    extraordinary burden of spiritual, moral and political leadership.


Op-Ed Contributor: Rome's Radical Conservative



    THE election of Cardinal Josef Ratzinger as pope was John Paul II's
    last gift to the Roman Catholic Church. No cardinal was closer to John
    Paul II, or talked at length with him more often. In his sermon at the
    memorial for the late pope, Cardinal Ratzinger, with perfect pitch,
    praised his predecessor's gifts in poetry, drama and art, and the
    sweep of his vision and accomplishments. The sermon was interrupted
    many times by hearty applause, especially from the young.

    Cardinal Ratzinger's selection as pope, however, has been less
    heartily welcomed by many commentators in Europe and the United
    States, who have quickly characterized him as an "authoritarian," a
    "watchdog" and, most peculiarly, a "neoconservative."

    But this is a severe misreading of the man and shows that his critics
    paid little attention to that sermon, how he connected with the
    million or so young people who turned out, led not by enthusiasm, but
    by a remarkable sense of prayer, devotion and respectful silence.

    The new pope will not be a clone of the old. I've spoken to him
    several times over the last 40 years, and he is a much shyer man,
    quieter, more like a country pastor or a scholar than like an actor
    striding across all history as his stage. When one approaches him, he
    seems to back up an inch or two in diffidence. His voice is much
    softer than one expects.

    Yet his ideas about the changes needed by church institutions are, on
    the face of it, more radical than those of John Paul II, who was much
    more focused on the world at large than on the structure of the
    church. Benedict XVI learned from the Germany of the 1930's that too
    much care to preserve Catholic institutions, without powerful
    intellectual commitment in many souls, brings disaster. He may be much
    more willing to let go of institutions he considers only tepidly
    Catholic than people expect. And more serious about the life of the

    On the other hand, he has written of his joy in those Catholics who
    may be estranged, but still return at least for Christmas or Easter
    masses. He is glad that they draw nourishment from the liturgy. He
    holds that the Catholic church must always be reaching out, far beyond
    its present ranks, as the first tiny communities of Christians did,
    caring for the poor and orphans far outside their own small ranks. He
    does not want a small, closed church, but an expansive, open one - and
    a serious one.

    One of the characteristics the new pope much cherishes is "openness to
    the whole" - to the whole of history, to the whole of the human race.
    He boasts of never having wanted to start his own "school" of
    theological thought - though as a renowned professor in Germany he
    could well have done so - but rather to have opened the minds of his
    students to whole vast fields of human thought, in all traditions and
    places and times.

    He is praised for just such warmth and openness by Protestant and
    Jewish leaders with whom he has long been in scholarly conversation.
    (Again, his behavior is the very opposite of the stereotypes invented
    by his critics.)

    The world will discover the true man behind the stereotypes soon
    enough, for Cardinal Ratzinger has been one of the senior churchmen of
    recent times most open to journalists. He has allowed probing
    interviews lasting several days, all caught on dictating machines and
    published as best-selling books, organized by fine journalists like
    Vittorio Messori and Peter Seewald. We should not be surprised to see
    more publications from him as pope.

    Often Cardinal Ratzinger sharply portrayed a crucial parting of the
    ways: between modernizing the church, so as to seem to appeal to
    modern men at the expense of fidelity to the word of Jesus Christ; and
    being faithful to the word, at the expense of losing numbers. He has
    been quite fearless about choosing the second alternative. But he has
    also noted, correctly, that the parishes and dioceses that choose
    "modernization" usually end up losing numbers, while the more serious
    churches grow mightily. In particular, the churches of Africa and
    Asia, which have shown the most rapid growth, are the ones most intent
    on fidelity to the New Testament.

    One of Cardinal Ratzinger's central, and most misunderstood, notions
    is his conception of liberty, and he is very jealous in thinking
    deeply about it, pointing often to Tocqueville. He is a strong foe of
    socialism, statism and authoritarianism, but he also worries that
    democracy, despite its great promise, is exceedingly vulnerable to the
    tyranny of the majority, to "the new soft despotism" of the
    all-mothering state, and to the common belief that liberty means doing
    whatever you please. Following Lord Acton and James Madison, Cardinal
    Ratzinger has written of the need of humans to practice
    self-government over their passions in private life.

    He also fears that Europe, especially, is abandoning the search for
    objective truth and sliding into pure subjectivism. That is how the
    Nazis arose, he believes, and the Leninists. When all opinions are
    considered subjective, no moral ground remains for protesting against
    lies and injustices.

    Pope John Paul II thought the first issue of his time was the
    murderous politics that resulted from the separation of Europe into
    two by the Soviet Union. He saw it as chiefly a political issue, to be
    defeated by moral means.

    Pope Benedict XVI, like several of his namesakes back to St. Benedict
    himself (the founder of Western monasticism and patron saint of
    Europe), is more likely to take culture as the central issue of the
    new millennium: What is the culture necessary to preserve free
    societies from their own internal dangers - and to make them worthy of
    the sacrifices that brought them into being?

    Michael Novak is a theologian at the American Enterprise Institute and
    the author, most recently, of "The Universal Hunger for Liberty."


Opinion > Benedict XVI Greets the World (5 Letters)

April 20, 2005

Benedict XVI Greets the World (5 Letters)

    To the Editor:

    With deep joy I offer Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger my warm
    congratulations and most fervent good wishes on his election to the

    Joseph Ratzinger is a man rich in spiritual passion, humility,
    self-denial and love for the cause of God and of man. As Pope Benedict
    XVI, he brings to the papacy a brilliant philosophical and, in
    particular, theological mind that has embraced a vision of broad
    spiritual and ecclesiastical horizons: personal holiness, missionary
    outreach combined with constant concern for unity, and the necessary
    integration of spirituality and institutional ministry.

    His episcopal motto, "Co-worker of the Truth," has guided him in his
    tireless and uncompromising efforts aimed at defending and promoting
    the Catholic faith and its morals against modern errors.

    The new pope has also worked to encourage studies aimed at increasing
    knowledge of the faith so that the new problems arising from the
    progress of science and civilization can be answered in the light of
    the word of God.

    The aim for which he has always strived has been to serve the truth,
    seek to know it ever more thoroughly and make it ever more widely

    Paul Kokoski
    Hamilton, Ontario, April 19, 2005

    To the Editor:

    The new pope is known as humble but extremely doctrinaire.

    As a Vatican insider for many years, he will probably be averse to the
    necessary changes Catholicism needs to give it the dynamism necessary
    for the new millennium.

    I think that the cardinals chose this elderly and dogmatic leader as a
    transitional figurehead because of their tentative desire to adjust to
    the new global realities.

    I wish him well and only hope that he realizes that the real world is
    leaving the church behind.

    Anthony J. Frascino
    Audubon, N.J., April 19, 2005

    To the Editor:

    Congratulations are in order to Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger on becoming
    Pope Benedict XVI. While he faces many new challenges with his new
    position, I would argue that there is nothing more important than
    reaching out to those of different faiths to find common ground.

    Analysis of most of the world's geopolitical problems can be traced to
    tensions between and among religions.

    The papacy brings a powerful microphone with it, I hope that Pope
    Benedict XVI uses it to advance new cooperation between and among
    different religions.

    Steven M. Clayton
    Ocean, N.J., April 19, 2005

    To the Editor:

    One of the main reasons for the decline of Catholicism not only in
    Europe but also in Latin America, Canada and the United States and for
    the abandonment of the priesthood isn't mentioned in "Europeans Fast
    Falling Away From Church" (news article, April 19): the modernization
    of the Mass under Pope Paul VI more than 30 years ago.

    The new Mass simply does not convey spirituality or inspire awe.

    Let us hope that Pope Benedict XVI will be as assiduous in reinstating
    orthodoxy to public prayer and the liturgy as he has been in
    safeguarding doctrine.

    Marc A. Loera
    Inglewood, Calif., April 19, 2005

    To the Editor:

    According to Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the newly elected pope, "a
    dictatorship of relativism is being built that recognizes nothing as
    definite" (front page, April 19). But his insistence that the Catholic
    Church must defend itself from such moral chaos by adhering to age-old
    traditional Catholic teaching ignores the fact that the church has
    changed in many ways since its first incarnation - often wisely and of

    The doctrinal rigidity that the new pope has called for, with its
    selective emphasis on sexuality and sex-based prohibitions, is no less
    ideological than the secular movements he deplores and no more likely
    to save the church from the perils of modernity.

    Edward Cahill
    New York, April 19, 2005


News bulletin from the Chronicle of Higher Education, 5.4.20

Election of a Conservative Pope Signals Continuing Push for Orthodoxy,
Scholars Say


    The election of a conservative German cardinal, the Rev. Joseph
    Ratzinger, as the new pope is a sign that the Vatican will continue to
    rein in theologians with unorthodox views, several Roman Catholic
    scholars said on Tuesday. But some cautioned against prematurely
    judging the new pontiff, who will be known as Pope Benedict XVI.

    Benedict, who has a Ph.D. in theology from the University of Munich,
    is a longtime academic who has taught at several German universities.
    And in his most recent role as prefect of the Congregation for the
    Doctrine of the Faith, a post to which he was appointed in 1981 by
    Pope John Paul II, who died this month, Benedict was often involved in
    issues related to Catholic higher education.

    "This is a guy who understands the system for Catholic colleges and
    universities," said J. Patout Burns, a professor of Catholic studies
    at Vanderbilt University. "I think that's going to be altogether to
    the good."

    Dennis M. Doyle, a professor of religious studies at the University of
    Dayton, said there was "a lot of coherence and sincerity" to
    Benedict's positions. Mr. Boyle said he expected that the new
    pontiff's views on most issues having to do with Catholic higher
    education will be similar to his predecessor's.

    "I think he's often presented stereotypically and unfairly -- though
    that's not to say I have the same positions he has," Mr. Doyle said.
    "I grew up intellectually in an atmosphere where people were telling
    me that he was the Catholic devil, but I've developed a real respect
    for him."

    Some scholars, like the Rev. Charles E. Curran, expressed
    "disappointment" at the selection. Father Curran was banned from
    teaching theology at the Catholic University of America in 1986
    because of his opinions on topics like artificial birth control. The
    letter informing him of the Vatican's decision was written by Cardinal

    "This is obviously a sign that the papacy will continue in the same
    general way as the papacy of Pope John Paul II," Father Curran, who is
    now a professor of human values at Southern Methodist University, said
    in a written statement. He noted that he continues to believe that
    "one can disagree with some noninfallible and noncore church teachings
    and still be a loyal Roman Catholic."

    For more conservative Catholics, like Patrick J. Reilly, president of
    the Cardinal Newman Society, the election was a cause for rejoicing.

    "He is certainly not someone who has any hesitancy about telling
    individuals who are teaching things contrary to Catholic faith that
    they can no longer teach Catholic theology," Mr. Reilly said of the
    new pope. "And that's something that I think needs to happen,
    especially in the United States, and now very likely will."

    Mr. Reilly said the new pontiff has a reputation of being "more of a
    man of action" than John Paul II.

    Others cautioned against reading too much into that reputation. "I'm
    sure some folks will have doomsday scenarios, but I think that's very
    premature," said the Rev. Charles L. Currie, president of the
    Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. "People are not
    totally a product of their pasts. We should wait and see what this
    pope says and does."

    Many saw the choosing of the name "Benedict" as an indication that the
    new pontiff was interested in healing divisions within the church.
    Pope Benedict XV, who led the Church from 1914 to 1922, was viewed as
    a theological moderate.

    "The selection of the name is a handing out of an olive branch,
    maybe," said the Rev. David J. Collins, an assistant professor of
    history at Georgetown University. "Although at this point we're just
    reading the tea leaves."

    Background articles from The Chronicle:
      * [60]Mourning a Pope Who Stressed Orthodoxy (4/15/2005)
      * [61]A Theological Dissident Examines the Teachings of Pope John
        Paul II (4/1/2005)
      * [62]Who Is Catholic? (4/9/2004)
      * [63]Pulling Back the Veil (3/19/2004)
      * [64]Silence, Not Confrontation, Over the 'Mandatum' (6/14/2002)
      * [65]Bishops Approve Guidelines on Church Approval of Catholic
        Theologians' Teachings (6/29/2001)
      * [66]Liberal Roman Catholic Theologians Say Vatican Statement Won't
        Change Their Views (7/10/1998)
      * [67]Vatican Bars Theologians From Public Dissent on Official
        Teachings of the Catholic Church (7/4/1990)


   45. mailto:thomas.bartlett at chronicle.com
   46. http://chronicle.com/cgi2-bin/printable.cgi?article=http://chroni  
   60. http://chronicle.com/weekly/v51/i32/32a00101.htm
   61. http://chronicle.com/weekly/v51/i30/30a03101.htm
   62. http://chronicle.com/weekly/v50/i31/31a02601.htm
   63. http://chronicle.com/weekly/v50/i28/28a01201.htm
   64. http://chronicle.com/weekly/v48/i40/40a01001.htm
   65. http://chronicle.com/weekly/v47/i42/42a01201.htm

E-mail me if you have problems getting the referenced articles.

Reuters > International > Germans Feel Both Pride and Doubts Over Pope

April 20, 2005

Germans Feel Both Pride and Doubts Over Pope


    Filed at 7:18 a.m. ET

    BERLIN (Reuters) - Germany reacted uncertainly on Wednesday to the
    choice of a native son as Pope, as pride mingled with doubts that the
    arch-conservative theologian reflected its self-image as secular,
    liberal and progressive.

    Emotions ranged from joy to outright dismay as the country digested
    the news that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, a former archbishop of
    Munich, had been elected Pope Benedict XVI.

    ``We are the Pope! It's a thousand-year sensation!'' blared
    best-selling tabloid Bild, removing the usual bare-breasted model from
    page one in deference to the new pontiff.

    But irreverent left-wing daily Tageszeitung took the opposite view,
    blacking out the entire front page apart from the words: ``Joseph
    Ratzinger new Pope. Oh, my God!''

    The split reflected doubts, in Germany and elsewhere, over whether the
    Church's chief guardian of traditional doctrine for the past 23 years
    is charismatic, vigorous and open enough to tackle the social
    challenges of the 21st century.

    Ratzinger was elected Tuesday -- at 78, the oldest man to ascend the
    papal throne for three centuries.

    ``In my opinion the man is simply too old for this office,'' said
    Agnes Straubinger, a resident of Munich in Ratzinger's native Bavaria.
    ``How will the Catholic Church ever progress if it always bases itself
    in the past?''

    The new pope's own brother, Georg, told ARD television he was taken
    aback by the news.

    ``I was shocked, that's right ... I'd thought that his age and not
    very stable health were a reason for the cardinals to choose someone
    else,'' he said.


    That the spiritual and moral authority of the papacy should be wielded
    by a German, 60 years after the Nazi Holocaust and World War II, is an
    idea that would once have been unthinkable.

    ``Many did not believe such a thing possible after the terrible events
    which began from Germany and which can still be felt,'' German
    Catholic Cardinal Karl Lehmann said.

    ``It is therefore an important sign of Germany's ultimate return into
    the worldwide community of peoples which is also reflected in the
    Catholic Church ... This can give our country heart in many
    respects.''anniversaries of the war's end and the liberation of the
    Nazi death camps have been reminding Germany of the Hitler era.

    Ratzinger says in his autobiography he was forced to join the Hitler
    Youth as a boy and was later summoned to the military. He avoided
    being enrolled into the SS, the Nazis' elite troops, by declaring his
    intention of becoming a priest.

    While politicians spoke of their pride at having a German pope, their
    reactions seemed low-key.

    Some Germans wonder if Ratzinger, often portrayed as distant and
    austere, is the right man for the times. He has made clear he sees no
    room for debate on vexed issues like the Church's opposition to women
    priests, abortion and homosexuality.

    That message is alien to many in a country that sees itself as
    liberal, progressive and open-minded, and where sex and religion are
    regarded as private individual issues.

    ``We consider the election of Ratzinger is a catastrophe,'' said Bernd
    Goehring of German ecumenical group Church from Below. ``It is very
    disappointing, even if it was predictable. We can expect no reform
    from him in the coming years.''

    Germany's even split between Catholics and Protestants -- there are
    roughly 27 million of each in a country of 82 million -- further
    explains why the nation as a whole will not embrace Pope Benedict in
    the way that Poles did his predecessor, their countryman John Paul II.

    Catholics are mainly concentrated in the south and west and
    Protestants in the north -- a legacy of religious wars that swept the
    country and much of Europe in the 16th century after reformer Martin
    Luther broke with Rome.


AP > International > New Pope Inspired by Anti - War Pontiff

April 20, 2005

New Pope Inspired by Anti - War Pontiff


    Filed at 2:52 a.m. ET

    VATICAN CITY (AP) -- The last pope named Benedict guided the church
    during the dark years of World War I, espousing a policy of strict
    neutrality and pushing for peace through negotiations. To honor him,
    Joseph Ratzinger chose the same name.

    Ratzinger told cardinals he wanted to pay homage to Benedict XV, known
    for tireless efforts to help refugees and reunite a world divided by
    what was then known as the Great War, an archbishop said.

    The new pontiff, Benedict XVI, felt his namesake ''had done much for
    reconciliation among peoples,'' Berlin Cardinal Georg Maximilian
    Sterzinsky told reporters Tuesday after attending the conclave.
    Ratzinger also was close to the late John Paul II -- another
    peace-loving pontiff. John Paul openly opposed the U.S.-led war in

    Choosing a new name is a pontiff's first significant act in office,
    and it provides clues about the kind of leader he aspires to be.

    Benedict XV, pontiff from 1914 to 1922, had the difficult task of
    providing leadership for Roman Catholic countries pitted against each
    other during World War I, each claiming a just fight and praying for

    His neutrality, and repeated protests against weapons like poison gas,
    angered both sides. He worked to help the war's innocent victims and
    came up with a seven-point peace plan. It failed, but some of his
    proposals were included in Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, the U.S.
    president's wartime call for peace in January 1918.

    The Italian-born pope was punished for his neutrality by being
    excluded from 1919 talks at Versailles outside Paris, where a peace
    treaty was signed.

    Elsewhere, his work was honored: Muslim Turkey erected a statue to him
    in Istanbul, honoring him as ''the benefactor of all people,
    regardless of nation or creed.''

    John-Peter Pham, a Vatican expert who worked at the Holy See from 1992
    to 2002, said Benedict XV was ''in many respects the first modern

    ''Benedict XV's efforts to mediate the Great War as well as his
    humanitarian outreach, while also embracing the Orthodox and Muslims,
    is what was for his time an unprecedented choice,'' said Pham, now a
    professor at James Madison University.

    Ratzinger may also have been thinking of St. Benedict, a monk who died
    in the 6th century. The saint was the founder of Western monasticism.

    An 18th century saint of the same name, Benedict Joseph Labre, was a
    wandering pilgrim who ended up destitute. His feast day is April 16 --
    Ratzinger's birthday. The newest Benedict turned 78 on Saturday.

    The Italian version of Benedict, ''Benedetto,'' means one who is
    blessed, and the name's Latin origin refers to a blessing.

    The reigns of some of the other Benedicts, however, ended violently.
    During the 10th century, Benedict V was forcibly deposed by the troops
    of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, and Benedict VI was imprisoned and
    strangled by order of a rival pontiff, Boniface VII.

    Benedict is one of a number of papal names of holy origin such as
    Clement (''mercy''), Innocent (''hopeful'' as well as ''innocent'')
    and Pius (''pious''). John is the most popular, with 23 pontiffs
    taking that name. Two -- John Paul I and John Paul II -- used it in a
    double name. There have been 16 Gregories and, as of Tuesday, 16


    Associated Press Writers Daniela Petroff and Maria Sanminiatelli
    contributed to this report.

AP > International > Israel Praises Pope Despite Past Nazi Ties

April 20, 2005

Israel Praises Pope Despite Past Nazi Ties


    Filed at 8:27 a.m. ET

    JERUSALEM (AP) -- Israeli politicians and rabbis on Wednesday praised
    new Pope Benedict XVI for his strong condemnations of anti-Semitism
    despite the pontiff's ties to the Nazi Party as a youth.

    Benedict's appointment received mixed reactions from Arabs in the Holy
    Land. Muslim leaders urged him to take a more active role in solving
    the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, while Greek Orthodox officials
    voiced hope he help unify various Christian denominations.

    As a German, Benedict sets off alarm bells for many Israelis, whose
    memories of the Nazi murder of 6 million Jews remain painfully vivid.
    Many wondered whether he would embrace Jews as warmly as his

    ''There are good relations with him,'' Oded Ben-Hor, Israel's
    ambassador to the Vatican, told Army Radio. ''Israel can certainly
    coexist with him. But the real test will come over the course of

    Israelis widely admired the late Pope John Paul II for his unstinting
    efforts to promote Jewish-Catholic reconciliation. John Paul won many
    Israeli hearts during a trip to the Holy Land in 2000 by apologizing
    for Roman Catholic wrongdoing over the centuries. He also was praised
    for promoting interfaith dialogue, establishing diplomatic relations
    with Israel and aiding Polish Jews during the Nazi era.

    As a young man, the new pope served in the Hitler Youth -- compulsory
    for young Germans at the time -- and during World War II was drafted
    into a German anti-aircraft unit, although he says he never fired a
    shot. Though Benedict has been a leading voice in the church in
    battling anti-Semitism and fostering Jewish-Catholic relations, his
    past raised suspicions in the Jewish state.

    ''White smoke, black past,'' said the headline in the mass circulation
    Yediot Ahronot. ''From the Nazi youth movement to the Vatican.''

    Nonetheless, Jewish leaders said they were encouraged by the special
    interest by the new pope, the former Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, in

    ''Though as a teenager he was a member of the Hitler Youth, all his
    life Cardinal Ratzinger has atoned for the fact,'' said Abraham H.
    Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League, an American
    Jewish group that battles anti-Semitism. Foxman himself was saved
    during the Holocaust by his Polish nanny, who had him baptized and
    raised him as a Catholic, until his Jewish parents reclaimed him at
    the end of the war.

    Moshe Zimmerman, a professor of German history at the Hebrew
    University in Jerusalem, played down the importance of the new pope's
    membership in the Hitler Youth.

    ''He was 18 years old when the war ended, so everything that he had to
    do with the Nazi regime was as a very young man,'' he said. ''I don't
    believe that there is any room for doubt that (the pope) of today is
    very different than the days he belonged in the Hitler Youth.''

    Tel Aviv Chief Rabbi Israeli Meir Lau -- a Holocaust survivor and a
    former chief rabbi for Israeli Jews of European backgrounds -- said
    his many meetings with Benedict while he was a cardinal have convinced
    him of his good record on matters of concern to Israelis.

    ''(The last meeting) was last year, in New York, in the Museum of
    Jewish Heritage of all places,'' Lau told Israel Army Radio. ''There
    was a meeting of two or three rabbis with some 20 cardinals .... His
    entire speech was given over to a condemnation of anti-Semitism, in
    the strongest and most unambiguous terms.''

    Writer Zvi Gil, also a Holocaust survivor, said he expects Benedict to
    continue John Paul's favorable attitude toward Jews, precisely because
    of his German past.

    ''His attitude to Jews in Israel will to a very significant extent be
    influenced by that of his predecessor John Paul II, whose steps are
    well known to us,'' Gil told Army Radio. ''And as a German I don't
    think he will want to move backward from these steps toward Israeli

    For some Israelis, the new pope's condemnation of abortion, same-sex
    marriage and his embrace of other conservative stands has raised
    concerns of closed-mindedness -- an attitude they fear may be
    connected to residual anti-Semitism.

    However, commentators say the new pope's theology mirrors that of many
    Jewish religious leaders, and should not be seen as a sign of

    ''He's much more traditional, and his positions are a lot tougher than
    Jewish law,'' said Lau. ''And Jewish law is my law.''

    A top Muslim leader, meanwhile, urged Benedict to follow John Paul's
    efforts to promote interfaith relations and resolve the
    Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    ''We hope that the new pope will give the church more roles in trying
    to solve the problems that the world is facing,'' said Adnan Husseini,
    director of the Waqf, or Islamic Trust. ''We hope that he will
    continue the policy of John Paul II, who opposed the wall around the
    Palestinian territories and called for peace between the two

    Bishop Theophilos, the top Greek Orthodox official at the Church of
    the Holy Sepulcher, called on Benedict to repair relations among
    Christian denominations, though he said he was skeptical.

    ''I hope that he can help promote unity of the Christian churches,
    especially between the Eastern Orthodox and the Latin,'' he said.

    ''The real obstacle to the unity of the church is the office of the
    pope,'' he added. ''If ever the pope had the courage or the will to
    say he is the bishop of Rome, not the vicar of Christ, then the road
    to unity is opened. As long as the office of the pope remains
    untouchable, the Christian Church remains divided.''


AP > International > China Hopes for Better Vatican Ties

April 20, 2005

China Hopes for Better Vatican Ties


    Filed at 1:43 a.m. ET

    BEIJING (AP) -- China on Wednesday congratulated the newly appointed
    Pope Benedict XVI and said it hoped Beijing's strained relations with
    the Roman Catholic Church improve under his leadership.

    ''We hope under the leadership of the new pope, the Vatican side can
    create favorable conditions for improving the relationship between
    China and the Vatican,'' Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang said in a

    China's officially atheist government broke ties with the Vatican in
    1951 and has said it will consider opening relations only if the
    Vatican cuts links with rival Taiwan, which split with the mainland in
    1949 amid civil war.

    Qin said relations between the two sides could improve under two

    ''The Vatican must cut off its so-called diplomatic relations with
    Taiwan, acknowledging the People's Republic of China is the only sole
    legal government representing the whole of China,'' he said.

    Secondly, the Vatican ''must not intervene in China's domestic
    affairs, including not intervening in domestic affairs in the name of
    religion,'' Qin said.

    The official body representing China's Catholics also sent a
    congratulatory cable to the Vatican and asked its followers to pray
    for him as a gesture of congratulations, Qin said.

    The Vatican is the only European government that has official
    relations with Taiwan. China still claims the self-ruled island as its
    territory and refuses to have any official contact with governments
    that recognize its rival as a sovereign country.

    China demands that Catholics worship only in churches approved by a
    state-controlled church group that does not recognize the pope's
    authority. The state-sanctioned China Patriotic Catholic Association
    didn't send a representative to the pope's funeral, citing the dispute
    over Taiwan.

    The China Patriotic Catholic Association regards the pope as a
    spiritual leader and follows Vatican teachings but rejects the
    Vatican's role in church operations and appoints its own priests.

    The association claims 4 million followers, but foreign experts say as
    many as 12 million more worship in unofficial churches loyal to the
    Vatican. In some areas, unofficial church members are routinely
    harassed and their leaders arrested.

AP > International > The Reigns of All Popes Named Benedict

April 20, 2005

The Reigns of All Popes Named Benedict


    Filed at 2:52 a.m. ET

    A list of the reigns of all popes named Benedict:

    Benedict I, 575-579

    Benedict II, 684-685

    Benedict III, 855-858

    Benedict IV, 900-903

    Benedict V, 964-964/965

    Benedict VI, 972/973-974

    Benedict VII, 974-983

    Benedict VIII,1012-1024

    Benedict IX, 1032-1044

    Benedict X, 1058-1059

    Benedict XI, 1303-1304

    Benedict XII, 1334/1335-1342

    Benedict XIII, 1724-1730

    Benedict XIV, 1740-1758

    Benedict XV, 1914-1922

    Benedict XVI, 2005-


AP > International > Some Cardinals Get Chatty After Conclave

April 19, 2005

Some Cardinals Get Chatty After Conclave


    Filed at 9:58 p.m. ET

    VATICAN CITY (AP) -- Whatever happened to the sacred oath of secrecy?

    Cardinals were sworn to silence about everything that happened during
    deliberations in the Sistine Chapel to choose a new pope. But within
    hours of the conclave, some German cardinals -- delighted about the
    choice of their countryman, Joseph Ratzinger -- spilled some of the

    Cardinal Joachim Meisner told reporters Tuesday night that the new
    Pope Benedict XVI was elected on the fourth ballot -- the first of the
    afternoon session. He added that Ratzinger got more than the required
    two-thirds support.

    ''It was done without an electoral battle, and without propaganda,''
    the archbishop of Cologne told reporters at a residence for German
    priests in Vatican City. ''For me it was a miracle.''

    There was spontaneous applause as soon as cardinals realized Ratzinger
    had won, Meisner said.

    ''And I burst out crying,'' he added.

    Meisner and three other German cardinals spent about 45 minutes
    answering questions about the conclave and didn't seem worried about
    commenting despite their vow of silence -- which Ratzinger led
    himself, as dean of the College of Cardinals, when the conclave began

    One by one, cardinals filed up to a Book of the Gospels and placed
    their right hands on it. Ratzinger's admonition read, in part: ''We
    promise and swear not to break this secret in any way...'' To guard
    against high-tech leaks by cellular phones, there were even electronic
    jamming devices under a false floor in the chapel.

    One query the cardinals wouldn't answer is exactly how many votes
    Ratzinger garnered.

    ''We've already said enough,'' said Cardinal Georg Maximilian
    Sterzinsky, the archbishop of Berlin.

    Meisner gave a few clues about the new pope's emotional reaction on
    being named. He said Benedict XVI looked ''a little forlorn'' when he
    went to change into his papal vestments in the Room of Tears -- which
    earned its nickname because many new pontiffs get choked up there,
    realizing the enormity of their mission.

    ''I was worried, because when he came back dressed in his white
    vestments, I thought he had forgotten his skullcap,'' Meisner said.
    ''But then I realized his hair is as white as his skullcap.''

    Meisner added: ''By the time dinner came around, Ratzinger was looking
    much better and very much like the pope.''

    The new pope asked cardinals to dine together on bean soup, cold cuts,
    a salad and fruit, Meisner said. The nuns who prepare their meals
    didn't have time to plan a special menu, so there were only two
    special treats -- ice cream and champagne.

    Some U.S. cardinals also offered insight about why the vote went to

    New York Cardinal Edward Egan, who worked for years in Rome and at the
    Vatican, was asked whether the new pope had the support of Catholics
    in Latin America and Africa.

    ''Obviously, he must have had support from the Third World,'' he
    responded. Going into the vote, there was much speculation about the
    possibility of a pope from the developing world, where most Roman
    Catholics live.

    Philadelphia Cardinal Justin Rigali, who worked for more than two
    decades in Vatican diplomacy, said the decision to choose Ratzinger
    was not made in the days leading up to the conclave or as a result of
    Ratzinger's moving homily at Pope John Paul II's funeral.

    ''Decisions like this are not made on how a person impresses you in
    the last five minutes, the last hours, the last days,'' he said.

    Rigali said the cardinals in the conclave thought about what John Paul
    had accomplished. Ratzinger was close to the late pope.

    ''We were looking for a successor of (St.) Peter,'' the first pope,
    Rigali said. ''We were looking for a successor of John Paul II. All of
    us were talking about the incredible qualities of John Paul II,
    knowing the world is calling him 'The Great.'''


    Associated Press Writer Angela Doland and AP Religion Writer Rachel
    Zoll contributed to this report.


AP > International > No Reports of Benedict Health Problems

April 19, 2005

No Reports of Benedict Health Problems


    Filed at 9:48 p.m. ET

    VATICAN CITY (AP) -- The new Pope Benedict XVI has no apparent history
    of chronic health problems, but the 78-year-old German has been
    hospitalized at least twice since the early 1990s, according to
    records and reports.

    In September 1991, he suffered a cerebral hemorrhage that temporarily
    affected his left field of vision, according to the veteran Vatican
    journalist John Allen in his 2000 book ''Cardinal Ratzinger.'' There
    is no indication that it left any lingering health difficulties.

    In August 1992, he cut his head after slipping in the bathroom during
    a vacation in the Italian Alps, the Italian news agency ANSA reported
    at the time.

    Thomas Frauenlob, director of St. Michael's seminary in Traunstein
    where the pope studied as a youth and still visits annually, said he
    had never heard of any major ailments.

    ''He seems healthy,'' said Frauenlob, who last saw him over the New
    Year's holiday. ''He comes and eats and drinks whatever he wants.''

    But the Rev. Thomas Reese, an expert on Vatican affairs, believed the
    new pontiff's health was ''not that good'' during the past year. He
    gave no specifics.


AP > International > A Look at Some Previous Pope Benedicts

April 19, 2005

A Look at Some Previous Pope Benedicts


    Filed at 2:50 p.m. ET

    Benedict, the name of the new pope, is one of the more frequent
    choices made by pontiffs. A look at some previous Benedicts:

    --Benedict XV (reigned 1914-1922): He was chosen as a contrast with
    his predecessor Pius X, whose theological crackdown against
    ''modernism'' had roiled the church. His accession coincided with the
    start of World War I.

    --Benedict XIV (1740-1758): He was a compromise choice after an
    arduous six-month conclave. Like former professor Cardinal Joseph
    Ratzinger, he was considered a scholar.

    --Benedict XIII (1724-1730): A rare pope from a religious order, the
    Dominicans, he remained head of his former Italian diocese as well as
    the bishop of Rome.

    --Benedict XII (1335-1342): He was one of the French popes who reigned
    from Avignon instead of Rome, considered a bleak era for the papacy.

    --Benedict XI (1303-1304): Also a Dominican, he was considered
    scholarly and a peacemaker among church factions.



April 19, 2005

Popes Who Have Served Since 19th Century


    Filed at 1:53 p.m. ET

    Popes who have served since the 19th century:

    Pius VII -- March 14, 1800-Aug. 20, 1823.

    Leo XII -- Sept. 28, 1823-Feb. 10, 1829.

    Pius VIII -- March 31, 1829-Nov. 30, 1830.

    Gregory XVI -- Feb. 2, 1831-June 1, 1846.

    Pius IX -- June 16, 1846-Feb. 7, 1878.

    Leo XIII -- Feb. 20, 1878-July 20, 1903.

    Pius X -- Aug. 4, 1903-Aug. 20, 1914.

    Benedict XV -- Sept. 3, 1914-Jan. 22, 1922.

    Pius XI -- Feb. 6, 1922-Feb. 10, 1939.

    Pius XII -- March 2, 1939-Oct. 9, 1958.

    John XXIII -- Oct. 28, 1958-June 3, 1963.

    Paul VI -- June 21, 1963-Aug. 6, 1978.

    John Paul I -- Aug. 26-Sept. 28, 1978.

    John Paul II -- Oct. 16, 1978-April 2, 2005.

    Benedict XVI -- April 19, 2005-

Thousands of Gamblers Score on Pope Vote

April 19, 2005


    Filed at 6:00 p.m. ET

    DUBLIN, Ireland (AP) -- When Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected
    pope, he was hardly the only winner. Thousands worldwide placed bets
    on him through the Web -- and an inspired few hundred even correctly
    guessed he'd take the name Benedict.

    Among a handful of Internet-based bookmakers who offered odds on the
    next pope, the biggest player was Paddy Power PLC, the No. 1 bookie in
    Ireland, which has taken bets on John Paul's successor for the past
    five years.

    Minutes after Benedict XVI appeared in St. Peter's Square, Paddy Power
    was collecting -- or paying out -- on more than 10,000 bets totaling
    more than $260,000.

    The biggest winners: Someone who put down $1,050 Saturday on a
    Ratzinger victory at odds of 6 to 1, which meant a payout of $7,350;
    and somebody else who waged $260 on the new pontiff's taking Benedict,
    which at 3-to-1 odds meant $1,050 back. The money kept flowing in
    until the white smoke appeared.

    ''We were kind of hoping the conclave would run for two weeks,'' said
    Paddy Power, spokesman for the firm of the same name, in a telephone
    interview from Rome, where the company has been promoting its Vatican

    Paddy Power, fellow Dublin betting site Intrade and three British
    bookies -- [1]betfair.com, Pinnacle and William Hill -- all rated
    Ratzinger either as favorite or second-favorite. His victory meant
    they all still made a profit, because of all the other bets placed on
    a field of more than 100 other candidates, but only a modest one.

    ''If a real long shot had won it, we'd have taken home the full 200
    grand,'' Power said, referring to his firm's total of bets, in euros,
    on a field of about 90 cardinals.

    As it was, he said, the backers of Ratzinger would get more than
    $162,000, while those who backed other winners -- including the name
    of Benedict and the successful election on Tuesday -- would take about
    $13,000 more, leaving the company a profit of more than $85,000.

    Other betting sites had Ratzinger as clear favorite. At Pinnacle, for
    instance, he opened two weeks ago at odds of 7 to 1, but those
    narrowed to just 3 to 1 by Tuesday.

    At Paddy Power, Ratzinger was once listed at odds of more than 20 to
    1. Since John Paul's death, Ratzinger had surged ahead of initial
    favorite Dionigi Tettamanzi of Italy. But the star then rose of
    Nigeria's Francis Arinze, pushing Ratzinger back into second; Arinze
    remained No. 2 on other sites.

    At the moment white smoke rose in Vatican City, Paddy Power froze
    betting with the odds on Arinze at 7 to 2 and Ratzinger at 11 to 2. In
    joint third were Tettamanzi and French Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger of
    France at 7 to 1.

    ''The only worse outcome for us would have been if Arinze won,'' Power
    said. ''A Lustiger win could have been just as bad for us as Ratzinger
    because we took some big bets on him at high odds a week or so ago.''

    Paddy Power was the only bookmaker to take bets on the papal name. It
    listed Benedict as favorite, just ahead of John Paul.

    But Power explained that Benedict was ranked so highly because of its
    connections to Lustiger, not Ratzinger. He said St. Benedict had
    predicted that the Catholic church one day would elect a former Jew as
    pope; Lustiger converted from Judaism.

    ''Just our luck. Ratzinger got us on that one too,'' he said.

    Power said the firm's oddsmakers would take a few days to think up
    some new pope-related bets -- such as the chances of Ratzinger's
    permitting women into the priesthood. ''It'd be a brave man or woman
    who'd put money on that one,'' he said.


    On the Net: [2]www.paddypower.com


    1. http://betfair.com/
    2. http://www.paddypower.com/


Events in the Life of Pope Benedict XVI

April 19, 2005


    Filed at 10:09 p.m. ET

    Events in the life of Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI:


    April 16, 1927: Born in Marktl am Inn in Germany's southern region of
    Bavaria near the Austrian border on the day before Easter. Baptized
    the same day.

    1929: Family moves to town of Tittmoning.

    1932: Family moves to Traunstein after his father has conflicts with
    local Nazi Party supporters in Tittmoning.

    1941: Enrolled against his will in Hitler Youth. Dismissed shortly
    afterward because of his intention to study for the priesthood.

    1943: Drafted as helper for anti-aircraft unit, serves in battery
    defending BMW plant.

    1944: Dismissed from unit, but returns home to find draft notice for
    forced labor.

    1944: Leaves home to dig anti-tank trenches.

    1944: Released from labor force and returns home only to receive army
    draft notice three weeks later.

    1945: Deserts from army and returns home. Captured by Americans as war

    1945: Released from U.S. POW camp, hitches a ride home on milk truck.

    1945: Begins study for priesthood in Freising.

    1951: Ordained a priest along with his brother Georg.

    1953: Receives doctorate in theology, University of Munich.

    1959: Begins teaching theology in Bonn, first of several appointments
    in German universities.

    1969: Leaves University of Tuebingen concerned about student unrest
    which had interrupted his lectures with sit-ins. Takes teaching job in
    Regensburg in native Bavaria, near his brother.

    1977: Elected Archbishop of Munich und Freising.

    1977: Elevated to cardinal three months later by Pope Paul VI.

    1978: Participated in conclave that elected Pope John Paul II.

    1979: Vatican revokes theology teaching license of liberal German
    theologian Hans Kueng, who helped Ratzinger get a teaching post at
    University of Tuebingen in the 1960s. Ratzinger was sharply critical
    of Kueng.

    1981: Summoned to Rome as head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of
    the Faith under John Paul II.

    1985: On behalf of John Paul II, he denounces a work by Leonard Boff,
    a Latin American pioneer of Liberation Theology.

    1985: Publication of ''The Ratzinger Report.''

    1997: Publication of ''Salt of the Earth.''

    1998: Publication of ''Milestones. Memoirs: 1927 to 1997.''

    1999: Travels to Menlo Park, Calif., for meeting with leaders of
    doctrinal committees of bishops conferences.

    2000: Publication of ''God and World,'' ''Spirit of the Liturgy.''

    2001: Attended Fontgombault Liturgical Conference, France.

    2002: Named Dean of the College of Cardinals.

    2002: Travels to Spain to preside over the ''Christ: Way, Truth and
    Life'' congress at the Catholic University of St. Anthony.

    April 13, 2005: Publication of ''Values in a Time of Upheaval.''

    April 19, 2005: Elected Pope Benedict XVI.


AP > Arts > Election of Pope a Hit for TV Networks

April 19, 2005

Election of Pope a Hit for TV Networks


    Filed at 9:03 p.m. ET

    NEW YORK (AP) -- The election of Pope Benedict XVI on Tuesday had all
    the elements of a hit daytime reality show for television networks:
    some comical confusion, anxiety-laden tedium and finally an exciting

    ABC, CBS and NBC interrupted programming shortly before noon at the
    first appearance of smoke billowing from a chimney atop the Sistine
    Chapel in Rome, the centuries-old signal of whether the cardinals
    meeting inside had elected a pope.

    The smoke looked white, meaning Roman Catholics had a new pope.

    Or was it?

    Bells were supposed to accompany the appearance of white smoke, and
    they weren't ringing. It drove the network anchors nuts.

    ''It continues to amaze me that in this world of high tech ... we have
    to find out that somebody is about to assume one of the most important
    offices in the world by reading smoke signals,'' said ABC's Charles

    Recalled NBC's Brian Williams later: ''I think we came up with more
    ways to characterize the color of smoke than I thought humanly
    possible before today.''

    Gibson couldn't hide his exasperation as the uncertainty stretched
    beyond 10 minutes.

    ''I must say, they're going to have to work on this,'' he said.

    (Pope John Paul II's death was announced by e-mail.)

    Finally, the crowd in St. Peter's Square roared, noticing the swinging
    of a large bell even before it began to peal.

    ''Habemus Papam!'' read the words on Fox News Channel's screen.

    They had a pope. They just didn't know who. And TV networks filled the
    time with somewhat aimless talking, with cameras trained on the
    Vatican window where a new pope would soon emerge.

    ''We just saw someone peeking behind the curtain,'' said CBS anchor
    Bob Schieffer. It was a false alarm.

    Killing time, CBS turned to correspondent Richard Roth in St. Peter's
    Square, where he interviewed the waiting faithful on who they expected
    would appear.

    Finally, the curtains parted, the windows opened and Cardinal Joseph
    Ratzinger of Germany was revealed as the new pope. It was a thrilling
    television moment.

    Guessing correctly in advance, NBC had Martin Savidge stationed in the
    new pope's German hometown for a live report on the reaction.

    Williams anchored NBC's coverage from the odd location of a makeshift
    studio at Oklahoma City's KFOR-TV; he was in the city for
    commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the federal building bombing.
    Gibson and Schieffer anchored from New York.

    Shortly after 1 p.m. Eastern, the broadcast networks left the
    post-selection analysis to the cable networks.


International > International Special > Last Pope Benedict Focused on
Ending World War I

[This is what James J. Martin called "inconvenient history" and has been

April 19, 2005

Last Pope Benedict Focused on Ending World War I


    The last pope who chose the name Benedict was an Italian noble who
    canonized Joan of Arc and spent much of his papacy trying
    unsuccessfully to end World War I, which had pitted Europe's Catholics
    against one another.

    Born Giacomo della Chiesa in Genoa, Italy, Pope Benedict XV served as
    pontiff from 1914 to 1922, the second shortest length of time for a
    pope in the 20th Century. He was elected in early September, less than
    two months after the outbreak of the war - chosen in part, because he
    was a trained diplomat who was neutral on the war.

    Almost immediately, Benedict XV appealed to the warring sides to make
    peace. He pushed for a Christmas Day truce in 1914 that was initially
    agreed to by Germany, but rejected by the Allies. His constant calls
    for ending the war became so unpopular on both sides that a 1915
    agreement between Italy and other Allies contained a secret provision
    to ignore papal peace efforts.

    By the time he delivered his Plea for Peace in 1917, Benedict XV was
    believed by each side to secretly favor the other. His plea for the
    end of the war and international arbitration was ignored by the
    leaders of the combatants with the exception of President Woodrow
    Wilson, who rejected it.

    Benedict XV was successful, however, in having disabled prisoners
    exchanged via neutral nations and also helped Belgians deported after
    the German offensive return home.

    When the war finally did end in 1918, Pope Benedict was excluded from
    the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, despite his entreaties to be made
    part of the talks. Afterward, the pope expressed dissatisfaction with
    the terms forced upon Germany.

    Benedict XV later helped develop a Code of Canon Law and worked on
    behalf of Armenian refugees.

    He died of influenza in 1922. Among his last words were, "We offer our
    life to God on behalf of the peace of the world."


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