[Paleopsych] Phase 2 detoxification
shovland at mindspring.com
Thu Apr 21 12:59:44 UTC 2005
Dietary risk factors for CA
1. High fat diet (strongly associated with colorectal and prostate cancer,
hypothetically related to Breast CA
2. Low fiber diet
3. Processed foods - high fat, bad fat (see below) - antinutrients
Chemotherapy - Not !!
Rather - Chemoprevention (prevent disease).
Able to measure amount of damage to our DNA
1. Free radicals (Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS)
a. High dose pesticides
b. Tobacco/2nd hand smoke/other carcinogens
Cancer develops over many decades
1. We have abnormal cells produced consistently.
2. Several mechanisms to identify and destroy these cells before they cause
a. Detoxifying enzymes (Phase 1, Phase 2)
b. Immune recognition
c. Tumor suppressor genes (i.e., P53)
d. NK cells-natural killer cells, (non-T, non-B)
3. These systems can break down in the following pattern of carcinogenesis:
4. Need to stimulate protective systems.
Detoxification - break down carcinogens to prevent DNA damage (liver).
1. Phase 1 Enzymes - Hydroxylation
a. Cytochrome P450 system (50-100 enzymes)
b. Many toxins are now more carcinogenic (after hydroxylation) and
chemically active with DNA so Phase 2 must be active to detoxify these
2. Phase 2 Enzymes - Conjugation
a. Glutathione-S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl-transferase, Glutathione
peroxidase, Quinone, reductase (all are glutathione dependent).
Ageing is associated with a decrease in plasma antioxidants (glutathione)
and an increase in oxidative products (lipid hydroperoxide) even in the
healthy as demonstrated in the above graph, Lancet 1998.
b. Stimulate these detoxifying enzymes: Polyphenols (green tea), Silymarin
(milk-thistle), Sulforaphane (broccoli), Tumeric (curry).
c. Ellagic acid (strawberries, raspberries, grapes, walnuts) - stimulate
Phase 2 enzymes while modulating Phase 1 enzyme activity.
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