[Paleopsych] NYT: In Japan Crash, Time Obsession May Be Culprit
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Wed Apr 27 19:26:55 UTC 2005
In Japan Crash, Time Obsession May Be Culprit
By NORIMITSU ONISHI
AMAGASAKI, Japan, April 26 - Anywhere else in the world, a train
running 90 seconds late would perhaps be considered on time. But in
Japan, 90 seconds would foil commuters who depend on trains'
connecting to one another with balletic precision, often with only a
couple of minutes to spare.
And so to make up for a lost 90 seconds, a 23-year-old train driver,
it became increasingly clear on Tuesday, was speeding when his train
jumped off the tracks on Monday morning at a curve here in western
Japan and hurtled into a nine-story apartment building.
In this rusting industrial town just outside Osaka, rescue workers
continued to try to free other passengers trapped inside the twisted
and crumpled cars.
Across the country, the accident has already caused much
soul-searching over Japan's attention - some would say obsession -
with punctuality and efficiency. To many, the driver's single-minded
focus on making up the 90 seconds seemed to reveal the weak points of
a society where the trains really do run on time, but where people
have lost sight of the bigger picture.
"Japanese believe that if they board a train, they'll arrive on time,"
said Yasuyuki Sawada, a 49-year-old railway worker, who had come to
look at the crash site. "There is no flexibility in our society;
people are not flexible, either."
Mr. Sawada was one of many people who came to stand and watch behind
the yellow police line here, and who saw deeper problems hidden in the
"If you go abroad, you find that trains don't necessarily arrive on
time," Mr. Sawada said. "This disaster was produced by Japanese
civilization and Japanese people."
[The death toll in the accident, the deadliest in Japan in four
decades, rose Wednesday to 91, Japanese news media reported.]
The Japanese search for rail perfection is relentless, from the humble
commuter train to the country's most famous tracks. In 2004, on the
40th anniversary of the bullet train, there was much hand-wringing
over the fact that a year earlier the trains on that line had
registered on average a delay - of six seconds.
In Tokyo, the Yamanote line, which loops around the city core, has
been making that trip ever more quickly thanks to better trains, down
to 62 minutes in 1988 from 70 minutes in 1964 and 75 minutes in 1946,
and, train officials project, under 60 minutes by the end of next
Train companies are secretive about delays. But any regular rider
notices that they tend to be caused not by engineering mishaps but by
events beyond human control, like typhoons and people jumping in front
of trains. So confident is Japan in its trains' safety that there are
no restrictions on how close residential buildings can be erected next
to tracks: it is not rare to see them only three feet apart.
Keeping to increasingly packed and tight schedules has become
all-important, not only for trains, but also for airlines. Japan
Airlines said this month that a recent series of mishaps had been
caused by its excessive focus on keeping to schedule.
The pressure to stay on schedule is so great, conductors apologize
profusely even over a one-minute delay. In the United States and
Europe, "late" often means a delay of six minutes or more.
"No question about it - there is no other rail system more punctual
than Japan's," said Shigeru Haga, a professor of transportation and
industrial psychology at Rikkyo University in Tokyo. "It's No. 1 in
the world for its punctuality and safety.
"I personally think Japanese should relax more and think that two- to
three-minute delays are no trouble. But you see people rushing up and
down the station stairs to catch a train even if there's another one
coming in two minutes."
This month, the West Japan Railway Company, the operator of the train
involved in the crash, for the first time issued a statement to its
employees saying that delays would betray customers' confidence.
It was perhaps with this statement in mind that the driver, Ryujiro
Takami, directed a train heading into Osaka on Monday morning. Mr.
Takami, whose body has yet to be recovered, had only 11 months of
experience, and had been reprimanded once for overshooting a platform
by 328 feet.
On Monday morning, at Itami station outside Osaka, Mr. Takami overshot
the platform again, forcing him to back up and lose 90 seconds.
Apparently aware that he would be reprimanded again, he persuaded the
conductor at the back of the train to report that he had overrun the
platform by 26 feet. On Tuesday, officials said that the length was
actually 131 feet, the equivalent of two cars.
The authorities, investigating possible negligence, raided West Japan
Railway offices in the Amagasaki area on Tuesday for documents
relating to the crash. They also recovered the train's data recorder.
It is believed that the train approached the curve at more than 62
miles an hour, well over the limit of 44 m.p.h.
The train, carrying about 580 passengers, began running abnormally
fast after leaving Itami station, passengers reported. The train was
scheduled to arrive at Amagasaki station at 9:20 a.m., in time for
many passengers to connect to another train leaving at 9:23.
The driver had made up 30 seconds, so the train was running only 60
seconds late when it derailed at a curve here and slammed into the
building a dozen or so feet away.
"The Japanese people are responsible for this accident, too," said
Toshinami Habe, 67, a chief of sales at a company here in Amagasaki.
"This is a society of free competition; there's no flexibility. That's
why with even a one-and-a-half-minute delay, he had to try to make up
Standing behind the yellow police line, Mr. Habe said that he had been
thinking about the accident all night long and that he had found it
hard to sleep. He criticized the lack of regulations that allows
residential buildings to stand so near the tracks.
"I knew this would happen one day," he said. "Although it's said that
Japan is No. 1 in punctuality, the most important thing is safety."
Dozens Dead in Sri Lanka Crash
COLOMBO, Sri Lanka, Wednesday, April 27 (AP) - A passenger train
collided Wednesday with a bus in northwestern Sri Lanka, and a police
spokesman said he had received reports of at least 50 people dead.
The bus apparently ignored warning signals and tried to cross the
tracks near the town of Alawwa when it was hit by the train, the
spokesman, Rienzie Perera, said.
In addition to those believed dead, at least 30 others suffered
serious injuries, he said.
The train had been traveling from Colombo to the temple city of Kandy.
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