[Paleopsych] Wikipedia: RFID

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    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a method of remotely storing
    and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags. An RFID tag is a
    small object, such as an adhesive sticker, that can be attached to or
    incorporated into a product. RFID tags contain [3]antennae to enable
    them to receive and respond to [4]radio-frequency queries from an RFID
    [6]1 History of RFID tags
    [7]2 Types of RFID tags
    [8]3 The RFID System
    [9]4 Current usage
    [10]5 Potential uses
    [11]6 Controversy

    [12]6.1 Passports
    [13]6.2 Driver's Licenses
    [14]7 External links

    [15]7.1 In the news
    [16]7.2 Opposition
    [17]7.3 Industry associations
    [18]7.4 Industry gazettes, journals and blogs

History of RFID tags

    Although some people think that the first known device may have been
    invented by [20]Leon Theremin as an espionage tool for the Russian
    Government in 1945, the first real usage of RFID devices predates
    that. During [21]World War II the [22]United Kingdom used RFID devices
    to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones.
    [23]RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane, not the
    kind of plane it was.

    Perhaps the first work exploring RFID is the landmark [24]1948 paper
    by Harry Stockman, entitled "Communication by Means of Reflected
    Power" (Proceedings of the IRE, pp1196-1204, October 1948). Stockman
    predicted that " ...considerable research and development work has to
    be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power
    communication are solved, and before the field of useful applications
    is explored." It required thirty years of advances in many different
    fields before RFID became a reality.

Types of RFID tags

    RFID tags can be either active or passive.

    Passive RFID tags do not have their own power supply: the minute
    [26]electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming
    radio-frequency scan provides enough power for the tag to send a
    response. Due to power and cost concerns, the response of a passive
    RFID tag is necessarily brief, typically just an ID number ([27]GUID).
    Lack of its own power supply makes the device quite small:
    commercially available products exist that can be embedded under the
    skin. As of [28]2004, the smallest such devices commercially available
    measured 0.4 [29]mm × 0.4 mm, and thinner than a sheet of paper; such
    devices are practically invisible. Passive tags have practical read
    ranges that vary from about 10 mm up to about 5 [30]metres.

    Active RFID tags, on the other hand, must have a power source, and may
    have longer ranges and larger memories than passive tags, as well as
    the ability to store additional information sent by the transceiver.
    At present, the smallest active tags are about the size of a coin.
    Many active tags have practical ranges of tens of metres, and a
    battery life of up to several years.

    As passive tags are much cheaper to manufacture, the vast majority of
    RFID tags in existence are of the passive variety. As of 2004 tags
    cost from US$0.40. The aim is to produce tags for less than US$0.05 to
    make widespread RFID tagging commercially viable. However, chip
    manufacturers supply of integrated circuits is not sufficient and
    demand is too low for prices to come down soon. Most analysts agree
    that a price level of less than $0.10 is only achievable in 6-8 years.

    There are four different kinds of tags commonly in use, their
    differences based on the level of their radio frequency: Low frequency
    tags (between 125 to 134 [31]kilohertz), High frequency tags (13.56
    [32]megahertz), [33]UHF tags (868 to 956 megahertz), and [34]Microwave
    tags (2.45 [35]gigahertz).

    See also for some [36]Transponder devices which deliver a similar
    function, and contactless [37]chipcards.

The RFID System

    An RFID system may consist of several components: tags, tag readers,
    tag programming stations, circulation readers, sorting equipment, and
    tag inventory wands. Security can be handled in two ways. Security
    gates can query the ILS to determine its security status or the tag
    may contain a security bit which would be turned on and off by
    circulation or self-check reader stations.

    The purpose of an RFID system is to enable data to be transmitted by a
    portable device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and
    processed according to the needs of a particular application. The data
    transmitted by the tag may provide identification or location
    information, or specifics about the product tagged, such as price,
    color, date of purchase, etc. The use of RFID in tracking and access
    applications first appeared during the 1980s. RFID quickly gained
    attention because of its ability to track moving objects. As the
    technology is refined, more pervasive--and invasive--uses for RFID
    tags are in the works.

    In a typical RFID system, individual objects are equipped with a
    small, inexpensive tag which contains a transponder with a digital
    memory chip that is given a unique electronic product code. The
    interrogator, an antenna packaged with a transceiver and decoder,
    emits a signal activating the RFID tag so it can read and write data
    to it. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it
    detects the reader's activation signal. The reader decodes the data
    encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is
    passed to the host computer for processing.

    Security gates can then detect whether or not the item has been
    properly checked out of the library. When users return items, the
    security bit is re-set and the item record in the ILS is automatically
    updated. In some RFID solutions a return receipt can be generated. At
    this point, materials can be roughly sorted into bins by the return
    equipment. Inventory wands provide a finer detail of sorting. This
    tool can be used to put books into shelf-ready order.

Current usage

    Low -frequency RFID tags are commonly used for [40]animal
    identification, beer [41]keg tracking, and [42]automobile
    key-and-lock, [43]anti-theft systems. [44]Pets are often embedded with
    small chips so that they may be returned to their owners if lost. In
    the United States, two RFID frequencies are used: 125kHz (the original
    standard) and 134.5kHz, the international standard.

    High-frequency RFID tags are used in [45]library [46]book or bookstore
    tracking, [47]pallet tracking, [48]building [49]access control,
    [50]airline [51]baggage tracking, and [52]apparel item tracking.
    High-frequency tags are widely used in identification [53]badges,
    replacing earlier [54]magnetic stripe cards. These badges need only be
    held within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the

    [55]UHF RFID tags are commonly used commercially in pallet and
    [56]container tracking, and [57]truck and [58]trailer tracking in
    shipping yards.

    [59]Microwave RFID tags are used in long range access control for
    vehicles, an example being [60]General Motors' [61]OnStar system.

    Some [62]toll booths, such as [63]California's [64]FasTrak system, use
    RFID tags for [65]electronic toll collection. The tags are read as
    vehicles pass; the information is used to debit the toll from a
    [66]prepaid [67]account. The system helps to speed traffic through
    toll plazas.

    [68]Sensors such as [69]seismic sensors may be read using RFID
    transceivers, greatly simplifying [70]remote data collection.

    In January 2003, [71]Michelin announced that it has begun testing RFID
    transponders embedded into tires. After a testing period that is
    expected to last 18 months, the manufacturer will offer RFID-enabled
    tires to car-makers. Their primary purpose is tire-tracking in
    compliance with the United States Transportation, Recall, Enhancement,
    Accountability and Documentation Act (TREAD Act).

    Cards embedded with RFID chips are widely use as [72]electronic cash,
    e.g. [73]Octopus Card in [74]Hong Kong and the [75]Netherlands to pay
    fares in [76]mass transit systems and/or retails.

    Starting from the 2004 model year, a "Smart Key" option is available
    to the [77]Toyota [78]Prius and some [79]Lexus models. The key fob
    uses an active RFID circuit which allow the car to acknowledge the
    key's presence within 3 feet of the sensor. The driver can open the
    doors and start the car while the key remains in a purse or pocket.

    In August 2004, the [80]Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and
    Correction (ODRH) approved a $415,000 contract to trial the tracking
    technology with [81]Alanco Technologies. Inmates will wear
    "wristwatch-sized" [82]transmitters that can detect if prisoners have
    been trying to remove them and send an alert to [83]prison
    [84]computers. This project is not the first such rollout of tracking
    [85]chips in [86]US prisons. Facilities in [87]Michigan,
    [88]California and [89]Illinois already employ the technology.

    Implantable RFID "chips", originally designed for animal tagging are
    being used and contemplated for humans as well. [90]Applied Digital
    Solutions proposes their chip's "unique under-the-skin format" as a
    solution to identity fraud, secure building access, computer access,
    storage of medical records, anti-kidnapping initiatives and a variety
    of law-enforcement applications. Combined with sensors to monitor body
    functions, the [91]Digital Angel device could provide monitoring for
    patients. The Baja Beach Club in [92]Barcelona, [93]Spain uses an
    implantable [94]Verichip to identify their VIP customers, who in turn
    use it to pay for drinks. The [95]Mexico City police department has
    implanted approximately 170 of their police officers with the
    Verichip, to allow access to police databases and possibly track them
    in case of kidnapping.

Potential uses

    RFID tags are often envisioned as a replacement for [97]UPC or [98]EAN
    bar-codes, having a number of important advantages over the older
    bar-code technology. RFID codes are long enough that every RFID tag
    may have a unique code, while UPC codes are limited to a single code
    for all instances of a particular product. The uniqueness of RFID tags
    means that a product may be individually tracked as it moves from
    location to location, finally ending up in the consumer's hands. This
    may help companies to combat theft and other forms of product loss. It
    has also been proposed to use RFID for [99]point-of-sale store
    checkout to replace the [100]cashier with an automatic system, with
    the option of erasing all RFID tags at checkout and paying by credit
    card or inserting money into a payment machine. This has to a limited
    extent already been implemented at some stores[101][1]

    An organization called EPCglobal is working on a proposed
    international standard for the use of RFID and the [102]Electronic
    Product Code (EPC) in the identification of any item in the
    [103]supply chain for companies in any industry, anywhere in the
    world. The organization's board of governors includes representatives
    from [104]EAN International, [105]Uniform Code Council, [106]The
    Gillette Company, [107]Procter & Gamble, [108]Wal-Mart,
    [109]Hewlett-Packard, [110]Johnson & Johnson, and [111]Auto-ID Labs.
    However, most RFID manufacturers work towards ISO-classification
    18000-6 in stead of EPC standardization. ISO-classification has a
    wider industry recognition and EPC is in principle only looking after
    the needs of retailers and Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG) companies.

    In July 2004, the Food and Drug Administration issued a ruling that
    essentially begins a final review process that will determine whether
    hospitals can use RFID systems to identify patients and/or permit
    relevant hospital staff to access [112]medical records. Update:
    According to the News Scan of Information Week on Oct. 18 2004, FDA
    has approved the country's first RFID chips that can be implanted in
    humans. The 134.2kHz RFID chips, from VeriChip Corp., a subsidiary of
    Applied Digital Solutions Inc., can incorporate personal medical
    information and could save lives and limit injuries from errors in
    medical treatments, according to the company. The FDA approval was
    disclosed during a conference call with investors.

    Many somewhat far-fetched uses, such as allowing a [113]refrigerator
    to track the expiration dates of the food it contains, have also been
    proposed, but few have moved beyond the prototype stage.

    Other future application related with transport and safety is using
    the RFID as intelligent traffic signals on the road (Road Beacon
    System or RBS). The system is based on an onboard vehicle reader and
    RFID tags embedded under the asphalt, signalling the driver when
    passing over. The chips have a very low implementation cost and a fast
    field implementation. They require no maintenance and run without
    batteries. They can send any kind of information to the driver, from
    speed limits to position information. The onboard vehicle reader can
    be completely customized, the driver can choose the information he is
    interested on. Also, the driver can be informed or alerted depending
    on his preferences. As an example, a driver will probably switch off
    tourist information during business trips but will switch it on during
    vacation periods. Other possible applications are for high precision
    indoor/outdoor positioning systems, transport exploitation systems,
    logistics or as a law enforcement ally (black box auditing). More
    details in: [114][2] (http://www.roadbeacon.com).


           How would you like it if, for instance, one day you realized
           your underwear was reporting on your whereabouts? [116][3]
           (http://news.com.com/2100-1029_3-5065388.html) - California
           Senator [117]Debra Bowen, at a 2003 hearing

    The use of RFID technology has engendered considerable controversy and
    even product [118]boycotts. The four main [119]privacy concerns
    regarding RFID are:
      * The purchaser of an item will not necessarily be aware of the
        presence of the tag or be able to remove it;
      * The tag can be read at a distance without the knowledge of the
      * If a tagged item is paid for by [120]credit card or in conjunction
        with use of a [121]loyalty card, then it would be possible to tie
        the unique ID of that item to the [122]identity of the purchaser;
      * Tags create, or are proposed to create, globally unique serial
        numbers for all products, even though this creates privacy
        problems and is completely unnecessary for most applications.

    Most concerns revolve around the fact that RFID tags affixed to
    products remain functional even after the products have been purchased
    and taken home, and thus can be used for [123]surveillance, and other
    nefarious purposes unrelated to their supply chain inventory
    functions. Although RFID tags are only officially intended for
    short-distance use, they can be interrogated from greater distances by
    anyone with a high-[124]gain antenna, potentially allowing the
    contents of a house to be scanned at a distance. Even short range
    scanning is a concern if all the items detected are logged in a
    [125]database every time a person passes a reader, or if it is done
    for nefarious reasons (e.g., a [126]mugger using a hand-held scanner
    to obtain an instant assessment of the wealth of potential victims).
    With permanent RFID serial numbers, an item leaks unexpected
    information about a person even after disposal; for example, items
    that are resold, or given away, enable mapping of a person's
    [127]social network.

    Another privacy issue is due to RFID's support for a [128]singulation
    (anti-collision) [129]protocol. This is the means by which a reader
    enumerates all the tags responding to it without them mutually
    interfering. The structure of the most common version of this protocol
    is such that all but the last [130]bit of each tag's [131]serial
    number can be deduced by passively [132]eavesdropping on just the
    reader's part of the protocol. Because of this, whenever RFID tags are
    near to readers, the distance at which a tag's signal can be
    eavesdropped is irrelevant; what counts is the distance at which the
    much more powerful reader can be received. Just how far this can be
    depends on the type of the reader, but in the extreme case some
    readers have a maximum power output (4 [133]W) that could be received
    from tens of kilometres away.

    The potential for privacy violations with RFID was demonstrated by its
    use in a [134]pilot program by [135]the Gillette Company, which
    conducted a "smart shelf" test at a [136]Tesco in [137]Cambridge. They
    automatically [138]photographed shoppers taking RFID-tagged
    [139]safety razors off the shelf, to see if the technology could be
    used to deter [140]shoplifting. [141][4]

    In January [142]2004 a group of privacy advocates was invited to
    [143]METRO Future Store in Germany, where an RFID pilot project was
    implemented. It was uncovered by accident that METRO "Payback"
    customer [144]loyalty cards contained RFID tags with customer IDs, a
    fact that was disclosed neither to customers receiving the cards, nor
    to this group of privacy advocates. This happened despite assurances
    by METRO that no customer identification data was tracked and all RFID
    usage was clearly disclosed. [145][5]

    The controversy was furthered by the accidental exposure of a proposed
    [146]Auto-ID consortium [147]public relations [148]campaign that was
    designed to "neutralize opposition" and get consumers to "resign
    themselves to the inevitability of it" whilst merely pretending to
    address their concerns. [149][6]

    The standard proposed by EPCglobal includes privacy-related guidelines
    for the use of RFID-based [150]EPC. These guidelines [151][7]
    ml) include the requirement to give consumers clear notice of the
    presence of EPC and to inform them of the choice that they have to
    discard, disable or remove EPC tags. These guidelines are non-binding,
    and only partly meet the [152]joint position statement
    (http://www.spychips.com/jointrfid_position_paper.html) of 46
    multi-national [153]consumer rights and privacy groups.

    In 2004, Lukas Grunwald released a computer program RFDump which with
    suitable hardware allows reading and reprogramming the metadata
    contained in an RFID tag, although not the unchangeable serial number
    built into each tag. He said consumers could use this program to
    protect themselves, although it would also have significant malicious

    There are applications instead where using RFID technology inversely
    as usual generates no concerns about privacy. This is the case of the
    Road Beacon System (RBS) [154][8] (http://www.roadbeacon.com) where
    the user is the only one who is using the reader collecting RFID
    information embedded under the road. This information can be stored in
    a "black box" but it is only avalilable for him/her, and is not
    travelling over networks, mobile phones or the Internet.


    A number of countries have proposed to embed RFID devices in new
    [156]passports [157][9]
    -7337_3-5313650.html), to facilitate efficient machine reading of
    [158]biometric data. Security expert [159]Bruce Schneier said of these
    proposals: "It's a clear threat to both privacy and personal safety.
    Quite simply, it's a bad idea." The RFID enabled passport uniquely
    identifies its holder, and in the proposal currently under
    consideration, will also include a variety of other personal
    information. This would greatly simplify some of the abuses of RFID
    technology just discussed, and expand them to include, for example,
    abuses based on machine reading of a person's race or nationality. For
    example, a mugger operating near an airport could target victims who
    have arrived from wealthy countries, or a terrorist could design a
    [160]bomb which functioned when approached by persons of a particular

Driver's Licenses

    The [162]US state of [163]Virginia has considered putting RFID tags
    into [164]drivers' licenses in order to make lookups faster for Police
    Officers and other government officials. The Virginia General Assembly
    also hopes that by including the tags fake [165]identity documents
    would become much harder to obtain. The proposal was first introduced
    in the "Driver's License Modernization Act" of 2002, which lapsed
    without vote, but as of 2004 the concept is still under consideration
    by a committee.

    The idea was supposedly prompted by the fact that several of the
    [166]September 11 [167]hijackers held fake Virginia drivers' licenses.
    However the [168]American Civil Liberties Union has claimed that in
    addition to being a risk to privacy and liberty, the proposal in fact
    would not have hindered the hijackers, since all their false documents
    were valid, officially issued documents obtained for a false identity.
    That is, the current weakness in the system is not inspecting
    documents in the field, but verifying identities before issuing

    Under the proposal, no information would be stored on the tag other
    than a number corresponding to the holder's information in a
    [169]database, only accessible by authorized personnel. Also, to deter
    [170]identity thieves one would simply need to wrap ones driver's
    license in [171]aluminium foil. [172][10]
    [173][11] (http://washingtontimes.com/metro/20041006-113607-9806r.htm)

External links


In the news

      * [176]EE Times: [177]Euro banknotes to embed RFID chips in 2005
        (http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20011219S0016) (December 2001)
      * [178]ZDNet: [179]Overcoming the Challenges of RFID
        (http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1107_2-5165705.html), Mark Palmer,
        (February 2003)
      * [180]Wired: [181]Use of RFID in an inner city school
      * [182]ZDNet: [183]Editorial: "Are spy chips set to go commercial?"
        (http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1107-980345.html) (January 2003)
      * Techworld: [184]RFID tags to make it into bank notes
        wsID=412) (September 2003)
      * [185]RFID tags become hacker target
        87912.html), Robert Lemos, July 28, 2004
      * SD Times: [186]Active vs. Passive Tags
        (http://www.sdtimes.com/opinions/guestview_111.htm) (September,
      * ACM Queue: [187]The Magic of RFID
        216), a technical RFID Overview for software engineers by Roy
        Want, Intel Research. (October 2004)



      * [189]Stop RFID (http://www.spychips.com/index.html), an
        [190]activist site devoted to exposing privacy problems with RFID.
      * [191]EFF position on RFID
      * See also [192]privacy external links for privacy rights
        organizations on the topic..


Industry associations

      * [194]EPCglobal website (http://www.epcglobalinc.org/)
      * [195]Association for Automatic Identification and Data Capture
        Technologies (http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/),
        [196]trade association webpage about RFID


Industry gazettes, journals and blogs

      * [198]RFID Gazette (http://www.rfidgazette.org/), providing daily
        RFID-related news
      * [199]The Future Is Here: A Beginner's Guide to RFID
        (http://www.rfidgazette.org/2004/06/rfid_101.html), an RFID
        Gazette essay. (June 2004)
      * RFIDbuzz: [200]Website (http://www.rfidbuzz.com/) and [201]Wiki
      * RFID Journal: [202]Michelin Embeds RFID Tags in Tires
      * [203]RFID Log (http://www.rfidlog.com/), industry news service on
        RFID innovation, implementation and legal processes
      * [204]RFID News (http://www.rfidnews.org/), [205]weblog and monthly
        e-magazine covering the RFID Industry
      * [206]RFID and Contactless technology News
        (http://www.contactlessnews.com/), free resource for breaking news
        and research on the use of contactless and radio frequency
        identification technologies. Profit, privacy, and the battle for
        control of the emerging technology are frequently covered topics
        in this industry leading resource.
      * [207]MoreRFID.com (http://www.morerfid.com/), free RFID
        information site.
      * [208]RFID Global Resource Link (http://www.byvalor.com/), a
        comprehensive directory for system integrators to have quick
        access to all global RFID-related resources.


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   73. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octopus_Card
   74. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong
   75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands
   76. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_transit
   77. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota
   78. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prius
   79. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexus
   80. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio
   81. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Alanco_Technologies&action=edit
   82. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Transmitters&action=edit
   83. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison
   84. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computers
   85. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chips
   86. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/US
   87. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan
   88. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California
   89. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois
   90. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_Digital_Solutions
   91. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Angel
   92. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barcelona
   93. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain
   94. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verichip
   95. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico_City
   96. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=5
   97. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Product_Code
   98. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EAN
   99. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-of-sale
  100. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashier
  101. http://www.ncr.com/repository/articles/pdf/sa_selfcheckout_integratedsolutions.pdf
  102. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Product_Code
  103. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain
  104. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Article_Numbering-Uniform_Code_Council
  105. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Article_Numbering-Uniform_Code_Council
  106. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gillette_Company
  107. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procter_%26_Gamble
  108. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wal-Mart
  109. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hewlett-Packard
  110. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson_%26_Johnson
  111. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto-ID_Labs
  112. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_records
  113. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigerator
  114. http://www.roadbeacon.com/
  115. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=6
  116. http://news.com.com/2100-1029_3-5065388.html
  117. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Debra_Bowen&action=edit
  118. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boycott
  119. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privacy
  120. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_card
  121. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loyalty_card
  122. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity
  123. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveillance
  124. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gain
  125. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database
  126. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robbery
  127. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network
  128. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singulation
  129. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protocol
  130. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit
  131. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_number
  132. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eavesdropping
  133. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watts
  134. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_stage
  135. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gillette_Company
  136. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesco
  137. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambridge
  138. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photograph
  139. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety_razor
  140. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoplifting
  141. http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=5363
  142. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004
  143. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=METRO_Future_Store&action=edit
  144. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loyalty_card
  145. http://www.spychips.com/metro/overview.html
  146. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto-ID_Labs
  147. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_relations
  148. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaign
  149. http://www.spychips.com/press-releases/security_gaffe.html
  150. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Product_Code
  151. http://www.epcglobalinc.org/public_policy/public_policy_guidelines.html
  152. http://www.spychips.com/jointrfid_position_paper.html
  153. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_rights
  154. http://www.roadbeacon.com/
  155. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=7
  156. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passport
  157. http://news.com.com/E-passports+to+put+new+face+on+old+documents/2100-7337_3-5313650.html
  158. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometric
  159. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Schneier
  160. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Improvised_explosive_device
  161. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=8
  162. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States
  163. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia
  164. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Driver%27s_license
  165. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_document
  166. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11%2C_2001_attacks
  167. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_hijacking
  168. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_Liberties_Union
  169. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database
  170. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_theft
  171. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_foil
  172. http://www.cavalierdaily.com/CVarticle.asp?ID=21006&pid=1202
  173. http://washingtontimes.com/metro/20041006-113607-9806r.htm
  174. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=9
  175. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=10
  176. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EE_Times
  177. http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20011219S0016
  178. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZDNet
  179. http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1107_2-5165705.html
  180. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wired
  181. http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,60898,00.html
  182. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZDNet
  183. http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1107-980345.html
  184. http://www.techworld.com/news/index.cfm?fuseaction=displaynews&NewsID=412
  185. http://news.com.com/RFID+tags+become+hacker+target/2100-1029_3-5287912.html
  186. http://www.sdtimes.com/opinions/guestview_111.htm
  187. http://www.acmqueue.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=216
  188. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=11
  189. http://www.spychips.com/index.html
  190. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activist
  191. http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/RFID/
  192. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privacy#External_Links
  193. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=12
  194. http://www.epcglobalinc.org/
  195. http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/
  196. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry_trade_group
  197. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=RFID&action=edit&section=13
  198. http://www.rfidgazette.org/
  199. http://www.rfidgazette.org/2004/06/rfid_101.html
  200. http://www.rfidbuzz.com/
  201. http://www.rfidbuzz.com/wiki/
  202. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/269/1/1/
  203. http://www.rfidlog.com/
  204. http://www.rfidnews.org/
  205. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weblog
  206. http://www.contactlessnews.com/
  207. http://www.morerfid.com/
  208. http://www.byvalor.com/

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