[Paleopsych] Wiki: List of U.S. Presidential religious affiliations

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List of U.S. Presidential religious affiliations - Wikipedia,
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[Note this: "Franklin Steiner, in his book The Religious Beliefs Of Our 
Presidents, categorized Harrison as the first President who was unquestionably 
a communicant in an orthodox Church at the time he was elected.]

    This is a list of the religious affiliations of Presidents of the
    United States. The particular [3]religious affiliations of [4]U.S.
    Presidents can affect their electability, shape their visions of
    society and how they want to lead it, and shape their stances on
    policy matters. For example, a contributing factor to [5]Alfred E.
    Smith's defeat in the [6]presidential election of 1928 was his
    [7]Roman Catholic faith. In the 1960s, President [8]John F. Kennedy
    faced accusations that as a Catholic president he would do as [9]Pope
    John XXIII would tell him to do. [10]Thomas Jefferson, [11]Abraham
    Lincoln, and several other presidents were accused of being infidels
    during election campaigns -- and at other times.

    Throughout much of American history, the religion of past American
    presidents has been the subject of contentious debate. Some devout
    Americans have been disinclined to believe that there may have been
    [12]agnostic or even non-Christian presidents, especially amongst the
    [13]Founding Fathers of the United States. As a result, apocryphal
    stories of a religious nature have appeared over the years about
    particularly beloved presidents such as [14]Washington and Lincoln. On
    the other hand, [15]secular-minded Americans have sometimes downplayed
    the prominence that religion played in the private and political lives
    of the Founding Fathers.

    [16]Episcopalians are extraordinarily well represented among the
    presidents. This is in part because the [17]Episcopal Church was the
    [18]state religion in some states (such as Virginia) before their
    Constitutions were changed. Before the [19]American Revolution, the
    Episcopal Church was the American branch of the [20]Church of England.
    The first seven presidents listed below with Episcopalian affiliation
    were also the first seven from Virginia, and five of those were among
    the six presidents most closely identified with [21]Deism. Since there
    have seldom been any churches of Deism, strictly speaking Deist is not
    an affiliation in the same way Episcopalian is; it is included in the
    list below, however, to give a more complete view of the religious
    views of the presidents.

    The church closest to the [22]White House is also Episcopal, and has
    been attended at least once by nearly every president since [23]James
    Madison. St. John's Episcopal Church, just across Lafayette Square
    north of the White House, and built after the [24]War of 1812, is one
    of about five sometimes referred to as "the Church of the Presidents".

    Many people are interested not only in the religious affiliations of
    the presidents, but also in their inner beliefs. Some presidents, such
    as Madison and [25]Monroe, were extremely reluctant to discuss their
    own religious views at all. In general, it is difficult to define with
    any certainty the [26]faiths of presidents, because no one can truly
    be sure what relationship (if any) exists between another person and
    his deity, and because presidents, as public officials, have generally
    remained within the mainstream of American religious trends.

    With regard to [27]Christianity, distinguishing affiliation from
    belief can be somewhat complicated. At issue, to a certain extent, is
    "What counts as belonging to a church?" Must one be a [28]communicant
    to belong, or is [29]baptism or even simple attendance sufficient? Are
    [30]Unitarians, [31]Jehovah's Witnesses, and independents who
    generally hold [32]Jesus in high regard, but do not believe he was
    divine, to be counted as Christians or not? Numerous presidents
    changed their affiliations and/or their beliefs during their lives.
    George Washington, for example, gravitated from conventional
    Christianity as a youth towards [33]Deism as he aged.


      * [34]1 List of Presidential religious affiliations/beliefs (by
      * [35]2 List of Presidential religious affiliations (by religion)
      * [36]3 External links
      * [37]4 Further reading
      * [38]5 Presidential trivia lists


List of Presidential religious affiliations/beliefs (by President)

     1. [40]George Washington - [41]Deist; [42]Episcopalian (VA)
           + The religious views of George Washington are a matter of some
             controversy. There is strong evidence that he (like many of
             the Founding Fathers) was a [43]Deist - believing in
             [44]Divine Providence, but not believing in [45]divine
             intervention in the world after the initial design. Before
             the revolution, when the [46]Episcopal Church was still the
             [47]state religion in [48]Virginia, he served as a vestryman
             (lay officer) for his local church. He spoke often of the
             value of religion in general, and he sometimes accompanied
             his wife to Christian church services. However, there is no
             record of his ever becoming a communicant in any
             [49]Christian church and he would regularly leave services
             before [50]communion - with the other non-communicants. When
             Rev. Dr. James Abercrombie, rector of St. Peter's Episcopal
             Church in Philadelphia mentioned in a weekly sermon that
             those in elevated stations set an unhappy example by leaving
             at communion, Washington ceased attending at all on communion
             Sundays. Long after Washington died, asked about Washington's
             beliefs, Abercrombie replied: "Sir, Washington was a Deist."
             Various prayers said to have been composed by him in his
             later life are highly edited. He did not ask for any clergy
             on his deathbed, though one was available. His funeral
             services were those of the [51]Freemasons.
     2. [52]John Adams - [53]Unitarian (MA)
           + The Adamses were originally members of [54]Congregational
             churches in [55]New England. Congregationalist churches
             became more diverse than other [56]Reformed churches such as
             [57]Presbyterians, where higher courts ensure doctrinal
             uniformity. Many New England congregations reacted against
             the [58]First Great Awakening and were influenced by
             [59]Arminianism, [60]Deism, [61]Unitarianism, and (later)
             [62]Transcendentalism - moving away from [63]Calvinism and
             its doctrine of [64]Predestination. By the [65]1750s several
             Congregational preachers were teaching the possibility of
             [66]universal salvation. The first Unitarian church in
             America was established in Boston in 1785. By 1800, all but
             one Congregationalist church in [67]Boston had Unitarian
             preachers teaching the [68]strict unity of God, the
             subordinate nature of Christ, and salvation by character.
             [69]Harvard University, founded by Congregationalists, itself
             became a source of Unitarian training. [70][1]
     3. [71]Thomas Jefferson - [72]Deist; [73]Episcopalian (VA)
           + Though a vestryman (lay officer) of the Episcopal Church in
             Virginia, his beliefs were primarily [74]Deist. Unlike its
             effect on Congregational churches, Deism had little influence
             on Episcopal churches, which have a more hierarchical
             structure making them slower to modify their teachings. Of
             only three things Jefferson chose for his epitaph, one was
             the 1786 Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom.
             Jefferson's views are considered very close to [75]Unitarian
             [76][2]. The [77]Famous UUs website says: [78][3]

                       "Like many others of his time (he died just one
                       year after the founding of institutional
                       [79]Unitarianism in America), Jefferson was a
                       Unitarian in theology, though not in church
                       membership. He never joined a Unitarian
                       congregation: there were none near his home in
                       Virginia during his lifetime. He regularly attended
                       [80]Joseph Priestley's Pennsylvania church when he
                       was nearby, and said that Priestley's theology was
                       his own, and there is no doubt Priestley should be
                       identified as Unitarian. Jefferson remained a
                       member of the [81]Episcopal congregation near his
                       home, but removed himself from those available to
                       become godparents, because he was not sufficiently
                       in agreement with the [82]trinitarian theology. His
                       work, The [83]Jefferson Bible, was Unitarian in

           + A remarkable quote from a letter Jefferson wrote to a Dr.
             Woods indicates that in fact he possessed considerable
             antipathy towards Christianity:

                       "I have recently been examining all the known
                       superstitions of the world, and do not find in our
                       particular superstition one redeeming feature. They
                       are all alike founded on fables and mythology."

           + See [84]Wikiquote and [85]Positive Atheism for many more
             similar quotes.
     4. [86]James Madison - [87]Deist; [88]Episcopalian (VA)
           + In 1779 the [89]Virginia General Assembly deprived [90]Church
             of England ministers of tax support, but in 1784 [91]Patrick
             Henry sponsored a bill to again collect taxes to support
             churches in general. Madison's 1785 Memorial and Remonstrance
             was written in opposition to another bill to levy a general
             assessment for the support of religions. The assessment bill
             was tabled, and instead the legislature in 1786 passed
             Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom, first submitted in
             1779. Virginia thereby became the first state to disestablish
             religion -- Rhode Island, Delaware, and Pennsylvania never
             having had an established religion.
     5. [92]James Monroe - [93]Deist; [94]Episcopalian (VA)
     6. [95]John Quincy Adams - [96]Unitarian (MA) [97][4]
     7. [98]Andrew Jackson - [99]Presbyterian (NC/SC)
           + became a member about a year after retiring the presidency
     8. [100]Martin Van Buren - [101]Dutch Reformed or no affiliation (NY)
           + Van Buren did not join any church in Washington, nor in his
             home town of [102]Kinderhook (village), New York. The sole
             original source to claim that he did join a church - in
             [103]Hudson, New York - is Vernon B. Hampton, in Religious
             Background of the White House (Boston: Christopher Publishing
             House, 1932). The basis for this claim has not been found.
     9. [104]William Henry Harrison - [105]Episcopalian possibly (VA)
           + Harrison died just one month after his inauguration. After
             funeral, rector at St. John's Episcopal Church in Washington,
             DC said Harrison bought a Bible one day after his
             inauguration and planned to soon become a communicant.
    10. [106]John Tyler - [107]Deist; [108]Episcopalian (VA)
    11. [109]James K. Polk - [110]Presbyterian; later [111]Methodist
           + Raised Presbyterian, Polk had never been baptized due to an
             early family argument with the local Presbyterian minister in
             rural North Carolina. Polk's father and grandfather were
             Deists, and the minister refused to baptize James unless his
             father affirmed Christianity, which he would not do. At age
             38, Polk had a religious conversion to Methodism at a camp
             meeting, and thereafter he thought of himself as a Methodist.
             Out of respect for his mother and wife, however, he continued
             to attend Presbyterian services. Whenever his wife was out of
             town, or too ill to attend church, however, Polk worshipped
             at the local Methodist chapel. On his deathbed less than 4
             months after leaving the Presidency, he summoned the man who
             had converted him years before, the Rev. John B. McFerrin,
             who then baptized Polk as a Methodist.
    12. [112]Zachary Taylor - [113]Episcopalian (VA)
    13. [114]Millard Fillmore - [115]Unitarian (NY)
           + In the early 1830s, he worked to overturn the New York test
             law that required all witnesses in New York courts to swear
             an oath affirming their belief in God and the hereafter.
    14. [116]Franklin Pierce - [117]Episcopalian (NH)
           + 1850: unsuccessfully worked to abolish that portion of the
             New Hampshire Constitution which made the Protestant religion
             the official religion.
           + 1853 inauguration: affirmed instead of swearing the oath; did
             not kiss Bible
           + 1861: 4 years after retiring the presidency, he was baptized,
             confirmed, and became a regular communicant in St. Paul's
             Episcopal Church, in Concord, NH.
    15. [118]James Buchanan - [119]Presbyterian (PA)
           + raised Presbyterian, he joined its church after he retired
             the presidency
    16. [120]Abraham Lincoln - [121]Deist; no affiliation known (KY/IN/IL)
           + Life before the presidency
                o For much of his life, Lincoln was undoubtedly Deist (see
                  [122][5], [123][6]). In his younger days he openly
                  challenged orthodox religions, but as he matured and
                  became a candidate for public office he kept his Deist
                  views more to himself, and would sometimes attend
                  Presbyterian services with his wife. He loved to read
                  the Bible, and even quoted from it, but he almost never
                  made reference to Jesus, and is not known to have ever
                  indicated a belief in the divinity of Jesus.
                o Evidence against Lincoln's ever being Christian includes
                  offerings from two of Lincoln's most intimate friends,
                  [124]Ward Hill Lamon and [125]William H. Herndon. Both
                  Herndon and Lamon published biographies of their former
                  colleague after his assassination relating their
                  personal recollections of him. Each denied Lincoln's
                  adherence to Christianity and characterized his
                  religious beliefs as deist or atheist.
           + Lincoln's religion at the time of his death is a matter about
             which there is more disagreement. A number of Christian
             pastors, writing months and even years after Lincoln's
             assassination, claimed to have witnessed a late-life
             conversion by Lincoln to protestant Christianity. Some
             pastors date a conversion following the death of his son
             Eddie in 1850, and some following the death of his son Willie
             in 1862, and some later than that. These accounts are hard to
             substantiate and historians consider most of them to be
                o One such account is an entry in the memory book The
                  Lincoln Memorial Album--Immortelles (edited by Osborn H.
                  Oldroyd, 1882, New York: G.W. Carleton & Co., p. 366)
                  attributed to An Illinois clergyman (unnamed) which
                  reads "When I left Springfield I asked the people to
                  pray for me. I was not a Christian. When I buried my
                  son, the severest trial of my life, I was not a
                  Christian. But when I went to Gettysburg and saw the
                  graves of thousands of our soldiers, I then and there
                  consecrated myself to Christ. Yes, I do love Jesus."
                  Other entries in the memory book are attributed by name.
                  See a discussion of this story in They Never Said It, by
                  Paul F. Boller & John George, (Oxford Univ. Press, 1989,
                  p. 91).
                o Rev. Dr. [127]Phineas D. Gurley, pastor of the New York
                  Avenue Presbyterian church in Washington D.C., which
                  Lincoln attended with his wife when he attended any
                  church, never claimed a conversion. According to D.
                  James Kennedy in his booklet, "What They Believed: The
                  Faith of Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln", "Dr.
                  Gurley said that Lincoln had wanted to make a public
                  profession of his faith on Easter Sunday morning. But
                  then came Ford's Theater." (p. 59, Published by Coral
                  Ridge Ministries, 2003) Though this is possible, we have
                  no way of verifying the truth of the report. The chief
                  evidence against it is that Dr. Gurley, so far as we
                  know, never mentioned it publicly. The determination to
                  join, if accurate, would have been extremely newsworthy.
                  It would have been reasonable for Dr. Gurley to have
                  mentioned it at the funeral in the White House, in which
                  he delivered the sermon which has been
                  preserved[128][7]. The only evidence we have is an
                  affidavit signed more than sixty years later by Mrs.
                  Sidney I. Lauck, then a very old woman. In her affidavit
                  signed under oath in Essex County, New Jersey,
                  [129]February 15, [130]1928, she said, "After Mr.
                  Lincoln's death, Dr. Gurley told me that Mr. Lincoln had
                  made all the necessary arrangements with him and the
                  Session of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church to be
                  received into the membership of the said church, by
                  confession of his faith in Christ, on the Easter Sunday
                  following the Friday night when Mr. Lincoln was
                  assassinated." Mrs. Lauck was, she said, about thirty
                  years of age at the time of the assassination.
    17. [131]Andrew Johnson - no affiliation (NC/TN)
           + Some sources refer to Johnson having Baptist parents. He
             accompanied his wife to Methodist services sometimes,
             belonged to no church himself, and sometimes attended
             Catholic services - remarking favorably there was no reserved
             seating. Accused of being an infidel, he replied: "As for my
             religion, it is the doctrine of the Bible, as taught and
             practiced by Jesus Christ." (See The Age of Hate, 1930, by
             G.F. Milton, p. 80.)
    18. [132]Ulysses S. Grant - no affiliation known (OH)
           + Grant was never baptized into any church, though he
             accompanied his wife to Methodist services. Many sources list
             his religious affiliation as Methodist based on a Methodist
             minister's account of a deathbed conversion. He did leave a
             note for his wife in which he hoped to meet her again in a
             better world.
    19. [133]Rutherford B. Hayes - no affiliation (OH)
           + In his [134]1890, [135]17 May diary entry, he states: "I am
             not a subscriber to any creed. I belong to no Church. But in
             a sense satisfactory to myself, and believed by me to be
             important, I try to be a Christian and to help do Christian
             work." (page 435)
    20. [136]James Garfield - [137]Disciples of Christ (OH)
           + In his early adulthood, Garfield sometimes preached and held
             revival meetings.
    21. [138]Chester A. Arthur - [139]Episcopalian (VT/NY)
    22. [140]Grover Cleveland - [141]Presbyterian (NJ/NY)
    23. [142]Benjamin Harrison - [143]Presbyterian (OH/IN)
           + Harrison became a church elder, and taught Sunday school
           + Franklin Steiner, in his book The Religious Beliefs Of Our
             Presidents[144][8], categorized Harrison as the first
             President who was unquestionably a communicant in an orthodox
             Church at the time he was elected
    24. [145]Grover Cleveland - [146]Presbyterian (NJ/NY)
           + During his second (non-consecutive) term, Cleveland included
             mention of Jesus Christ in his Thanksgiving Proclamation,
             something no other President had ever done.
    25. [147]William McKinley - [148]Methodist (OH)
           + McKinley believed the U.S. government had a duty to help
             spread Christianity and Western civilization to the rest of
             the world.
    26. [149]Theodore Roosevelt - [150]Dutch Reformed (NY)
           + 1908: opposed putting [151]In God We Trust on coins as
    27. [152]William Howard Taft - [153]Unitarian (OH)
    28. [154]Woodrow Wilson - [155]Presbyterian (VA/GA/NJ)
    29. [156]Warren G. Harding - [157]Baptist (OH)
    30. [158]Calvin Coolidge - [159]Congregationalist (VT/MA)
    31. [160]Herbert Hoover - [161]Quaker (IA/OR/CA)
    32. [162]Franklin D. Roosevelt - [163]Episcopalian (NY)
    33. [164]Harry S. Truman - [165]Baptist (MO)
    34. [166]Dwight D. Eisenhower - [167]Jehovah's Witness; later
        [168]Presbyterian (TX/KS/PA)
           + Brought up Jehovah's Witness, Eisenhower abandoned that
             before joining the [169]United States Military Academy at
             [170]West Point, New York. (See [171][9], [172][10], and
             [173][11].) He was baptized, confirmed, and became a
             communicant in the Presbyterian church in a single ceremony
             [174]1953 [175]February 1, just weeks after his first
             inauguration. He is the only president known to be baptized,
             or to be confirmed, or to become a communicant while in
             office. Eisenhower was instrumental in the addition of the
             words "under God" to the [176]Pledge of Allegiance in
             [177]1954, and the [178]1956 adoption of "[179]In God We
             Trust" as the [180]motto of the USA, and its 1957
             introduction on paper currency. The chapel at his
             presidential library is intentionally inter-denominational.
    35. [181]John F. Kennedy - [182]Roman Catholic (MA)
    36. [183]Lyndon Johnson - [184]Disciples of Christ (TX)
    37. [185]Richard Nixon - raised [186]Quaker (CA)
    38. [187]Gerald R. Ford - [188]Episcopalian (NE/MI)
    39. [189]Jimmy Carter - [190]Baptist, [191]born again (GA)
           + In [192]2000, Carter left the [193]Southern Baptist
             Convention, disagreeing over the role of women in society.
             See [194][12]
    40. [195]Ronald Reagan - [196]Disciples of Christ (IL/CA)
    41. [197]George H. W. Bush - [198]Episcopalian (MA/CT/TX)
    42. [199]Bill Clinton - [200]Baptist (AR)
    43. [201]George W. Bush - raised [202]Episcopalian, at age 40 became
        [203]Methodist, [204]born again, religious [205]teetotaler (CT/TX)


List of Presidential religious affiliations (by religion)

      * [207]Baptist
           + [208]Warren Harding
           + [209]Harry Truman
           + [210]Jimmy Carter
           + [211]Bill Clinton ([212]Southern Baptist)

      * [213]Congregationalist
           + [214]Calvin Coolidge

      * [215]Deist
           + [216]George Washington
           + [217]Thomas Jefferson
           + [218]James Madison
           + [219]James Monroe
           + [220]John Tyler
           + [221]Abraham Lincoln

      * [222]Disciples of Christ
           + [223]James Garfield
           + [224]Lyndon Johnson
           + [225]Ronald Reagan

      * [226]Dutch Reformed
           + [227]Martin Van Buren
           + [228]Theodore Roosevelt

      * [229]Episcopalian - the first 7 listed below were all from
        Virginia, where the Episcopal Church was the state church until
           + [230]George Washington (primarily Deist)
           + [231]Thomas Jefferson (primarily Deist)
           + [232]James Madison (primarily Deist)
           + [233]James Monroe (primarily Deist)
           + [234]William Henry Harrison (planning on joining?)
           + [235]John Tyler (primarily Deist)
           + [236]Zachary Taylor (Deist?)
           + [237]Franklin Pierce
           + [238]Chester Arthur
           + [239]Franklin D. Roosevelt
           + [240]Gerald Ford
           + [241]George H. W. Bush

      * [242]Methodist
           + [243]James Polk (originally [244]Presbyterian)
           + [245]Ulysses Grant (also listed as none known)
           + [246]William McKinley
           + [247]George W. Bush

      * [248]Presbyterian
           + [249]Andrew Jackson
           + [250]James Polk (later [251]Methodist)
           + [252]James Buchanan
           + [253]Grover Cleveland
           + [254]Benjamin Harrison
           + [255]Woodrow Wilson
           + [256]Dwight D. Eisenhower (originally [257]Jehovah's

      * [258]Quaker
           + [259]Herbert Hoover
           + [260]Richard Nixon

      * [261]Roman Catholic
           + [262]John F. Kennedy

      * [263]Jehovah's Witnesses
           + [264]Dwight D. Eisenhower (later [265]Presbyterian)

      * [266]Unitarian - [267]Unitarian Universalism is the religion
        generally associated today with those whose ideology developed
        from [268]Deism.
           + [269]John Adams
           + [270]John Quincy Adams
           + [271]Millard Fillmore
           + [272]William Howard Taft

      * Presidents without affiliation
           + [273]Abraham Lincoln
           + [274]Andrew Johnson
           + [275]Ulysses Grant (also listed as Methodist)
           + [276]Rutherford Hayes


External links

      * [278]Adherents.com's list
      * [279]Abraham Lincoln was a Deist
      * [280]Excerpts from The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents, 1936,
        by Franklin Steiner
      * [281]Six Historic Americans by John Remsburg, 1906, examines
        religious views of Paine, Jefferson, Washington, Franklin,
        Lincoln, & Grant
      * [282]U.S. Library of Congress site: James Hutson article, James
        Madison and the Social Utility of Religion


Further reading

      * Steiner, Franklin, The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: From
        Washington to F.D.R., Prometheus Books/The Freethought Library,
        July 1995. [284]ISBN 0879759755

Presidential trivia lists

                                 [286]U.S. Presidential lists
        [287]Doctrines | [288]Libraries | [289]Nicknames | [290]Pets |
       [291]Residences | [292]College education | [293]Date of birth |
      [294]Date of death | [295]Genealogical relationship | [296]Height
    order | [297]Longevity | [298]Military rank | [299]Military service |
          [300]Place of birth | [301]Place of primary affiliation |
    [302]Political affiliation | [303]Political occupation | [304]Previous
       occupation | [305]Religious affiliation | [306]Time in office |
       [307]Served one term | [308]Served two or more terms | [309]Vice
                         Presidents by time in office


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   59. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arminianism
   60. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
   61. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarianism
   62. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism
   63. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvinism
   64. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predestination
   65. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1750s
   66. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universalism
   67. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston
   68. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nontrinitarianism
   69. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_University
   70. http://www.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/johnadams.html
   71. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
   72. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
   73. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
   74. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
   75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarian_Universalism
   76. http://www.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/thomasjefferson.html
   77. http://www.famousuus.com/
   78. http://www.famousuus.com/bios/thomas_jefferson.htm
   79. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarianism
   80. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Priestley
   81. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
   82. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitarianism
   83. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefferson_Bible
   84. http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
   85. http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/quotes/jefferson.htm
   86. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Madison
   87. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
   88. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
   89. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_General_Assembly
   90. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_England
   91. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Henry
   92. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Monroe
   93. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
   94. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
   95. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Quincy_Adams
   96. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarianism
   97. http://www.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/johnquincyadams.html
   98. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Jackson
   99. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  100. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Van_Buren
  101. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reformed_Church_in_America
  102. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinderhook_%28village%29%2C_New_York
  103. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson%2C_New_York
  104. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_Harrison
  105. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  106. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyler
  107. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
  108. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  109. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Polk
  110. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  111. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodism
  112. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zachary_Taylor
  113. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  114. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millard_Fillmore
  115. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarianism
  116. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce
  117. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  118. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan
  119. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  120. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln
  121. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
  122. http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/steinlinc.htm
  124. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ward_Hill_Lamon
  125. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Herndon
  126. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocryphal
  127. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phineas_D._Gurley&action=edit
  128. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gurley.htm
  129. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_15
  130. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1928
  131. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson
  132. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant
  133. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_B._Hayes
  134. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1890
  135. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_17
  136. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Garfield
  137. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciples_of_Christ
  138. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chester_A._Arthur
  139. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  140. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland
  141. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  142. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Harrison
  143. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  145. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland
  146. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  147. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McKinley
  148. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodism
  149. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
  150. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reformed_Church_in_America
  151. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_God_We_Trust
  152. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Howard_Taft
  153. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarianism
  154. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson
  155. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  156. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_G._Harding
  157. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptist
  158. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Coolidge
  159. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congregationalist_church
  160. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover
  161. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_Society_of_Friends
  162. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt
  163. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  164. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman
  165. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptist
  166. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower
  167. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehovah%27s_Witness
  168. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  169. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Military_Academy
  170. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Point%2C_New_York
  171. http://www.adherents.com/adh_presidents.html
  172. http://www.premier1.net/~raines/eisenhower.html
  173. http://www.adherents.com/largecom/fam_jw.html
  174. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953
  175. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_1
  176. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pledge_of_Allegiance
  177. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954
  178. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956
  179. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_God_We_Trust
  180. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motto
  181. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy
  182. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholicism
  183. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_Johnson
  184. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciples_of_Christ
  185. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon
  186. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_Society_of_Friends
  187. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_R._Ford
  188. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  189. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter
  190. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptist
  191. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Born_again
  192. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000
  193. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Baptist_Convention
  194. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/982650.stm
  195. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan
  196. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciples_of_Christ
  197. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._W._Bush
  198. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  199. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton
  200. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptist
  201. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush
  202. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  203. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodism
  204. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Born_again
  205. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teetotalism
  207. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptist
  208. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Harding
  209. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Truman
  210. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter
  211. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton
  212. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Baptist
  213. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congregational_church
  214. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Coolidge
  215. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deist
  216. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington
  217. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
  218. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Madison
  219. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Monroe
  220. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyler
  221. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln
  222. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciples_of_Christ
  223. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Garfield
  224. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_Johnson
  225. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan
  226. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reformed_Church_in_America
  227. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Van_Buren
  228. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
  229. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal
  230. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington
  231. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
  232. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Madison
  233. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Monroe
  234. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_Harrison
  235. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyler
  236. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zachary_Taylor
  237. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce
  238. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chester_Arthur
  239. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt
  240. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Ford
  241. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._W._Bush
  242. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodism
  243. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Polk
  244. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterian
  245. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_Grant
  246. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McKinley
  247. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush
  248. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism
  249. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Jackson
  250. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Polk
  251. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodist
  252. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan
  253. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland
  254. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Harrison
  255. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson
  256. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower
  257. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehovah%27s_Witnesses
  258. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_Society_of_Friends
  259. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover
  260. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon
  261. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholicism
  262. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy
  263. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehovah%27s_Witnesses
  264. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower
  265. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterian
  266. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarianism
  267. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitarian_Universalism
  268. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deism
  269. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams
  270. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Quincy_Adams
  271. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millard_Fillmore
  272. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Howard_Taft
  273. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln
  274. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson
  275. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_Grant
  276. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_Hayes
  278. http://www.adherents.com/adh_presidents.html
  279. http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/steinlinc.htm
  282. http://www.loc.gov/loc/madison/hutson-paper.html
  286. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States
  287. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidential_doctrines
  288. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidential_libraries
  289. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidential_nicknames
  290. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidential_pets
  291. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidential_residences
  292. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_college_education
  293. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_date_of_birth
  294. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_date_of_death
  296. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_height_order
  297. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_longevity
  298. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_military_rank
  299. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_military_service
  300. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_place_of_birth
  306. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._Presidents_by_time_in_office

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