[Paleopsych] Pioneer Fund: Grantees

Premise Checker checker at panix.com
Tue Jun 14 01:12:55 UTC 2005


              Highlights of Pioneer Fund Research and Grantees

    Since its inception in 1937, the Pioneer Fund has made grants to 64
    different institutions, located in eight different countries,
    including to some of the most prominent universities in the world. The
    collected works of the Pioneer Funds distinguished list of grantees
    now totals over 200 books and 2,000 articles. The Pioneer fund has
    focused its resources on supporting cutting-edge research in:
      * Behavioral Genetics
      * Cognitive Ability
      * Social Demography
      * Group Differences Sex, Social Class, and Race

Some of the most celebrated work by Pioneer grantees is summarized below.

                             Behavioral Genetics

Hans J. Eysenck

    From 1986 Pioneer supported the research program of the late Hans
    Eysenck of the University of London in England. One of the world's
    leading taxonomists of human personality and its biological basis,
    Eysenck began to build the British Twin Register early in his career.
    For over three decades his investigations indicated that genes
    contribute significantly to measures of extraversion, neuroticism,
    psychoticism, personal adjustment, and social attitudes. One of his
    longest standing interests was investigating the genetic contribution
    to the personality factors underlying antisocial behavior. His 1989
    book, The Causes and Cures of Criminality, written in collaboration
    with Gisli Gudjonsson, estimated the heritability of criminality at
    about 60 percent.

Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr.

    Perhaps the best known of the Pioneer-supported studies
    is the Minnesota Study of Identical Twins Reared Apart, which reunited
    separated twins from around the world. Professor Thomas J. Bouchard
    Jr. and his team at the University of Minnesota flew in sixty-two
    pairs of genetically identical and forty-three pairs of fraternal
    twins, many of who had not been together since infancy, for a week of
    testing. The identical twins turned out to have an extraordinary
    number of common traits
    including eccentricities while the fraternal twins were not nearly as
    alike. On quantitative tests of IQ and personality, as well as
    attitudes such as religiosity and traditionalism, values, vocational
    aptitudes, and work preferences, identical twins separated at birth
    grew to be even more similar than did fraternal twins raised together.
    The results of this research showed that heredity plays a major role
    in almost every type of human behavior, accounting for 40 to 80% of
    individual differences.

Joseph M. Horn

    Another major study Pioneer helped support was the Texas
    Adoption Project. Professor Joseph M. Horn at the University of Texas
    at Austin and his colleagues followed 300 Texas families who had
    adopted one or more children from a home for unwed mothers. The first
    phase of the study tested the personality and intelligence of adopted
    children between three and fourteen years-old; then the study
    re-tested them again as adolescents and young adults ten years later.
    Not only were the adoptees much more like their biological mothers
    than their adoptive mothers, but as they grew older, they became
    increasingly more similar to the biological parents they had not seen
    since shortly after their birth, and the less like the adopting
    parents who had raised them. By adolescence, the adoptees showed
    virtually no similarity to their adopting parents or the adoptive
    siblings with whom they had been raised. The study concluded that
    about fifty percent of the individual differences in IQ and
    personality were due to heredity and the remainder to environmental

R. Travis Osborne
J. Philippe Rushton
Philip A. Vernon

    Dovetailing with the results from these large scale
    projects are those from many others also funded by Pioneer. For
    example, Professor Emeritus R. Travis Osborne of the University of
    Georgia studied  intelligence and personality as well as physical
    characteristics in several hundred white and black twins in Georgia,
    Kentucky, and Indiana. Osbornes large twin study showed that the
    weight of genes and culture are equally as important among Blacks as
    among Whites. Professor J. Philippe Rushton of the University of
    Western Ontario, used the University of London Twin Register and found
    that individual differences in altruism, nurturance, and empathy were
    between 50 and 60% heritable, as were individual differences in
    aggression and crime. Professor Philip A. Vernon, also of the
    University of Western Ontario, has undertaken a longitudinal study of
    infant twins who are being tested and followed up over a period of
    years. Measures are made of motor, mental, and temperamental
    development, with the major goal of identifying cultural,
    environmental, and genetic  factors that contribute to development.

    Smaller scale grants have gone to support research on such genetic
    disorders as sickle-cell anemia, eye cancers, hemophilia, Tay-Sachs
    disease, and schizophrenia. These results show that discovering the
    genetic bases of various conditions serve to make them more amenable
    to treatment, rather than less so.

Brunetto Chiarelli

    Still other awards have gone to aid international conferences on
    anthropology and genetics. One recipient, Professor Brunetto Chiarelli
    of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Florence,
    recently used a grant to defray expenses for travelers from the
    developing world so they could attend the XVIth International Congress
    of Anthropology, which he hosted in Italy.


    Cognitive Ability

Hans J. Eysenck

    One of the most cited psychologists of all time,
    Professor Hans J. Eysenck (1916-1997) of the Institute of Psychiatry
    in London, England, also made significant contributions to the study
    of the nature of intelligence. In 1967, Eysenck proposed that faster
    neural transmission was the basis of higher IQ scores. Eysenck studied
    the reaction time and EEG (electroencephalogram or brain waves)
    correlates of intelligence, which are summarized in his posthumously
    published book Intelligence: A New Look (1998).

Arthur R. Jensen

    Professor Emeritus Arthur R. Jensen of the University of
    California at Berkeley is todays leading exponent of the position that
    all mental tasks, even simple reaction time tests, reflect a unitary
    general factor termed g. In studies conducted over two decades, factor
    analyzing a great number of data sets, using a variety of procedures,
    he has shown that this large general factor consistently emerges. Some
    intelligence tests, however, are better measures of g than others.
    Problem solving and reasoning are the best, or purest measures, while
    simpler cognitive processes, such as short-term memory still draw on
    g, but much less so. Jensen has established that the extent to which a
    test measures g is directly related to how much it is a product of
    nature, rather than nurture, and is correlated with anatomical and
    physiological measures such as brain waves.

Philip A. Vernon

    Professor Philip A. Vernon and his collaborators at the
    University of Western Ontario used state-of-the-art Magnetic Resonance
    Imaging (MRI) techniques and found that IQ scores are related to brain
    size. In one study, they reported the results for 40 adult females for
    whom the correlation between brain size and IQ was 0.40. In a
    subsequent study, this time of 68 adult males, they again found a 0.40
    correlation between brain volume and IQ. They also showed that
    external head size measures such as head length, head width, and head
    circumference also correlated with IQ scores, but only about 0.20, and
    that brain size correlated more highly with the g component of IQ

Linda S. Gottfredson

    Professor Linda S. Gottfredson, a sociologist at the
    University of Delaware, has investigated the role IQ plays in
    vocational aptitudes, health and longevity, and success. Gottfredson
    has demonstrated that intelligence is the single most important factor
    in the world of work. IQ predicts job performance better than any
    other single trait or circumstance, including education or specific
    aptitudes. While useful in all jobs, IQ becomes critical in the more
    complex and highly prestigious occupations. Gottfredson concluded that
    the occupational-prestige hierarchy is essentially a ranking of
    relative intellectual difficulty.

Robert Gordon

    Professor Robert Gordon, a sociologist at Johns Hopkins
    University, examined the role IQ plays in crime and delinquency. His
    review of the literature and subsequent mathematical models
    demonstrate that people with lower levels of intelligence are at much
    greater risk to fall into a life of delinquency. More recently, he has
    demonstrated that social outcomes such as single parenthood, HIV
    infection, poverty, and belief in conspiracy rumors are also predicted
    by lower IQ.


    Social Demography

Garrett Hardin

    Professor Garrett Hardin of the University of California
    at Santa Barbara, is one of the worlds leading ecologists. He has
    extended his Tragedy of the Commons and Living on a Lifeboat metaphors
    to questions of environmental conservation, world population, and
    immigration, noting that individuals tend to maximize their own
    advantage even if this entails a net cost to society as a whole.
    Applying this same analysis to people who have a large number of
    children and thereby impose a cost on society that they themselves do
    not have to bear, Hardin has questioned the assumption of many
    demographers that as people become more affluent they automatically
    control their fertility. His mathematical models predict that economic
    and other aid is likely to lead to population increases, not
    decreases, so that even more aid will be required in the future.

Richard Lynn

    Professor Richard Lynn of the University of Ulster has
    studied the social ecology of intelligence, and the question of
    whether the intelligence level of a population helps determine its
    level of economic and cultural achievement. After calculating average
    IQs for 13 regions in the UK, which ranged from 102 in London, to 97
    in Scotland, to 96 in Ireland, he found that per capita income and the
    number of Fellows of the Royal Society paralleled the mean IQs. Lynn
    then replicated these findings in a study of regional IQ differences
    in France. Most recently, he collaborated with Tatu Vanhannen, a
    political scientist in Finland, to publish IQ and the Wealth of
    Nations (2002). They examined IQ scores and economic indicators in 185
    countries and demonstrated that national differences in prosperity
    were best explained in terms of the intelligence levels of their
    respective populations. National IQ correlated more than 0.70 with per
    capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The second determinant of
    national wealth was whether a country had a market or a socialist
    economy. The widely credited factor of natural resources (such as
    oil), was only third.


    Group Differences Sex, Social Class, and Race

Lloyd Humphreys

    Sex differences. Professor Lloyd Humphreys of the
    University of Illinois has long been interested in mathematically
    gifted youth. In one study of approximately 100,000 tenth graders, he
    found that at the highly gifted end of the ability range, boys
    exceeded girls by a ratio of about 10 to 1, which he thought might
    help to explain the under-representation of women in math and science
    courses and careers.

Philip E. Vernon

    Socioeconomic status. Professor Philip E. Vernon
    (1905-1987) of the University of London in England and the University
    of Calgary in Canada documented the substantial social class
    differences in IQ scores found in both the U.S. and the U.K. For
    example, the analysis of the World War I American military conscripts
    showed that the average IQ of children born in the professional class
    was 123, whereas those born to unskilled workers averaged 96. Vernon
    concluded that these social class differences have some genetic basis.
    He based this assessment on his review of the evidence that the
    intelligence of adopted children related more to the social class of
    their biological parents than to that of their adopting parents.
    Vernon suggested that social mobility allows those with higher
    intelligence to rise in the social hierarchy, while those with lower
    intelligence tend to fall.

Aurdrey M. Shuey

    Racial variation. Professor Audrey M. Shuey (1910-1977) of
    Randolph-Macon Womans College in Virginia published the first
    comprehensive review of all the studies of average Black-White IQ
    differences in her book, The Testing of Negro Intelligence (1958, 2nd
    ed., 1966). The standard sourcebook on the topic, it demonstrated that
    the 15-point Black-White average IQ difference remained constant from
    the 1910s to the 1960s, across all regions of the U.S., as well as in
    Canada and Jamaica. It was also constant across all types of tests
    (verbal or non-verbal, and whether individual or group administered),
    age groups (primary school, high school, college, and adult), and
    specific samples (the gifted, the retarded, the delinquent, the
    military in World Wars I and II, as well as in the Korean and Viet man

Arthur R. Jensen
Richard Lynn
Philip E. Vernon

    Other Pioneer grantees significantly extended the scope of the debate
    about racial differences. Professor Arthur R. Jensen of the University
    of California at Berkeley in his book The g Factor (1998) demonstrated
    that IQ tests mostly measure the general factor (g) of intelligence,
    are not culturally biased against minorities, and that even the
    simplest reaction time measures correlate with IQ and show average
    race differences. In fact, Jensen has shown that Black-White IQ
    differences are greatest on the most g-loaded, heritable subtests.
    Professors Richard Lynn and Philip E. Vernon found that, on average,
    Pacific Rim Asians in Asia and in the United States averaged higher on
    tests of mental ability than did Whites. In his book The Abilities and
    Achievements of Orientals in North America (1982), Vernon also showed
    that East Asians tended to have a quieter temperament, a more stable
    family structure, and lower rates of violent crime.

More information about the paleopsych mailing list