[Paleopsych] NYT: Class Matters - Social Class and Education in the United States of America
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Wed May 25 00:47:00 UTC 2005
Class Matters - Social Class and Education in the United States of America
[Fifth of a series.]
By DAVID LEONHARDT
CHILHOWIE, Va. - One of the biggest decisions Andy Blevins has ever
made, and one of the few he now regrets, never seemed like much of a
decision at all. It just felt like the natural thing to do.
In the summer of 1995, he was moving boxes of soup cans, paper towels
and dog food across the floor of a supermarket warehouse, one of the
biggest buildings here in southwest Virginia. The heat was brutal. The
job had sounded impossible when he arrived fresh off his first year of
college, looking to make some summer money, still a skinny teenager
with sandy blond hair and a narrow, freckled face.
But hard work done well was something he understood, even if he was
the first college boy in his family. Soon he was making bonuses on top
of his $6.75 an hour, more money than either of his parents made. His
girlfriend was around, and so were his hometown buddies. Andy acted
more outgoing with them, more relaxed. People in Chilhowie noticed
It was just about the perfect summer. So the thought crossed his mind:
maybe it did not have to end. Maybe he would take a break from college
and keep working. He had been getting C's and D's, and college never
felt like home, anyway.
"I enjoyed working hard, getting the job done, getting a paycheck,"
Mr. Blevins recalled. "I just knew I didn't want to quit."
So he quit college instead, and with that, Andy Blevins joined one of
the largest and fastest-growing groups of young adults in America. He
became a college dropout, though nongraduate may be the more precise
Many people like him plan to return to get their degrees, even if few
actually do. Almost one in three Americans in their mid-20's now fall
into this group, up from one in five in the late 1960's, when the
Census Bureau began keeping such data. Most come from poor and
The phenomenon has been largely overlooked in the glare of positive
news about the country's gains in education. Going to college has
become the norm throughout most of the United States, even in many
places where college was once considered an exotic destination -
places like Chilhowie (pronounced chill-HOW-ee), an Appalachian hamlet
with a simple brick downtown. At elite universities, classrooms are
filled with women, blacks, Jews and Latinos, groups largely excluded
two generations ago. The American system of higher learning seems to
have become a great equalizer.
In fact, though, colleges have come to reinforce many of the
advantages of birth. On campuses that enroll poorer students,
graduation rates are often low. And at institutions where nearly
everyone graduates - small colleges like Colgate, major state
institutions like the University of Colorado and elite private
universities like Stanford - more students today come from the top
of the nation's income ladder than they did two decades ago.
Only 41 percent of low-income students entering a four-year college
managed to graduate within five years, the Department of Education
found in a study last year, but 66 percent of high-income students
did. That gap had grown over recent years. "We need to recognize that
the most serious domestic problem in the United States today is the
widening gap between the children of the rich and the children of the
poor," Lawrence H. Summers, the president of Harvard, said last
year when announcing that Harvard would give full scholarships to all
its lowest-income students. "And education is the most powerful weapon
we have to address that problem."
There is certainly much to celebrate about higher education today.
Many more students from all classes are getting four-year degrees and
reaping their benefits. But those broad gains mask the fact that poor
and working-class students have nevertheless been falling behind; for
them, not having a degree remains the norm.
That loss of ground is all the more significant because a college
education matters much more now than it once did. A bachelor's degree,
not a year or two of courses, tends to determine a person's place in
today's globalized, computerized economy. College graduates have
received steady pay increases over the past two decades, while the pay
of everyone else has risen little more than the rate of inflation.
As a result, despite one of the great education explosions in modern
history, economic mobility - moving from one income group to another
over the course of a lifetime - has stopped rising, researchers say.
Some recent studies suggest that it has declined over the last
generation. [Click here for more information on income mobility.]
Put another way, children seem to be following the paths of their
parents more than they once did. Grades and test scores, rather than
privilege, determine success today, but that success is largely being
passed down from one generation to the next. A nation that believes
that everyone should have a fair shake finds itself with a kind of
In this system, the students at the best colleges may be diverse -
male and female and of various colors, religions and hometowns - but
they tend to share an upper-middle-class upbringing. An old joke that
Harvard's idea of diversity is putting a rich kid from California in
the same room as a rich kid from New York is truer today than ever;
Harvard has more students from California than it did in years past
and just as big a share of upper-income students.
Students like these remain in college because they can hardly imagine
doing otherwise. Their parents, understanding the importance of a
bachelor's degree, spent hours reading to them, researching school
districts and making it clear to them that they simply must graduate
Andy Blevins says that he too knows the importance of a degree, but
that he did not while growing up, and not even in his year at
Radford University, 66 miles up the Interstate from Chilhowie. Ten
years after trading college for the warehouse, Mr. Blevins, 29, spends
his days at the same supermarket company. He has worked his way up to
produce buyer, earning $35,000 a year with health benefits and a
401(k) plan. He is on a path typical for someone who attended college
without getting a four-year degree. Men in their early 40's in this
category made an average of $42,000 in 2000. Those with a four-year
degree made $65,000.
Still boyish-looking but no longer rail thin, Mr. Blevins says he has
many reasons to be happy. He lives with his wife, Karla, and their
year-old son, Lucas, in a small blue-and-yellow house at the end of a
cul-de-sac in the middle of a stunningly picturesque Appalachian
valley. He plays golf with some of the same friends who made him want
to stay around Chilhowie.
But he does think about what might have been, about what he could be
doing if he had the degree. As it is, he always feels as if he is on
thin ice. Were he to lose his job, he says, everything could slip away
with it. What kind of job could a guy without a college degree get?
One night, while talking to his wife about his life, he used the word
"Looking back, I wish I had gotten that degree," Mr. Blevins said in
his soft-spoken lilt. "Four years seemed like a thousand years then.
But I wish I would have just put in my four years."
Why so many low-income students fall from the college ranks is a
question without a simple answer. Many high schools do a poor job of
preparing teenagers for college. Many of the colleges where
lower-income students tend to enroll have limited resources and offer
a narrow range of majors, leaving some students disenchanted and
unwilling to continue.
Then there is the cost. Tuition bills scare some students from even
applying and leave others with years of debt. To Mr. Blevins, like
many other students of limited means, every week of going to classes
seemed like another week of losing money - money that might have been
made at a job.
"The system makes a false promise to students," said John T.
Casteen III, the president of the University of Virginia, himself
the son of a Virginia shipyard worker.
Colleges, Mr. Casteen said, present themselves as meritocracies in
which academic ability and hard work are always rewarded. In fact, he
said, many working-class students face obstacles they cannot overcome
on their own.
For much of his 15 years as Virginia's president, Mr. Casteen has
focused on raising money and expanding the university, the most
prestigious in the state. In the meantime, students with backgrounds
like his have become ever scarcer on campus. The university's genteel
nickname, the Cavaliers, and its aristocratic sword-crossed coat of
arms seem appropriate today. No flagship state university has a
smaller proportion of low-income students than Virginia. Just 8
percent of undergraduates last year came from families in the bottom
half of the income distribution, down from 11 percent a decade ago.
That change sneaked up on him, Mr. Casteen said, and he has spent a
good part of the last year trying to prevent it from becoming part of
his legacy. Starting with next fall's freshman class, the university
will charge no tuition and require no loans for students whose parents
make less than twice the poverty level, or about $37,700 a year for a
family of four. The university has also increased financial aid to
To Mr. Casteen, these are steps to remove what he describes as
"artificial barriers" to a college education placed in the way of
otherwise deserving students. Doing so "is a fundamental obligation of
a free culture," he said.
But the deterrents to a degree can also be homegrown. Many low-income
teenagers know few people who have made it through college. A majority
of the nongraduates are young men, and some come from towns where the
factory work ethic, to get working as soon as possible, remains
strong, even if the factories themselves are vanishing. Whatever the
reasons, college just does not feel normal.
"You get there and you start to struggle," said Leanna Blevins, Andy's
older sister, who did get a bachelor's degree and then went on to earn
a Ph.D at Virginia studying the college experiences of poor students.
"And at home your parents are trying to be supportive and say, 'Well,
if you're not happy, if it's not right for you, come back home. It's
O.K.' And they think they're doing the right thing. But they don't
know that maybe what the student needs is to hear them say, 'Stick it
out just one semester. You can do it. Just stay there. Come home on
the weekend, but stick it out.' "
Today, Ms. Blevins, petite and high-energy, is helping to start a new
college a few hours' drive from Chilhowie for low-income students. Her
brother said he had daydreamed about attending it and had talked to
her about how he might return to college.
For her part, Ms. Blevins says, she has daydreamed about having a life
that would seem as natural as her brother's, a life in which she would
not feel like an outsider in her hometown. Once, when a high-school
teacher asked students to list their goals for the next decade, Ms.
Blevins wrote, "having a college degree" and "not being married."
"I think my family probably thinks I'm liberal," Ms. Blevins, who is
now married, said with a laugh, "that I've just been educated too much
and I'm gettin' above my raisin'."
Her brother said that he just wanted more control over his life, not a
new one. At a time when many people complain of scattered lives, Mr.
Blevins can stand in one spot - his church parking lot, next to a
graveyard - and take in much of his world. "That's my parents' house,"
he said one day, pointing to a sliver of roof visible over a hill.
"That's my uncle's trailer. My grandfather is buried here. I'll
probably be buried here."
Taking Class Into Account
Opening up colleges to new kinds of students has generally meant one
thing over the last generation: affirmative action. Intended to right
the wrongs of years of exclusion, the programs have swelled the number
of women, blacks and Latinos on campuses. But affirmative action was
never supposed to address broad economic inequities, just the ones
that stem from specific kinds of discrimination.
That is now beginning to change. Like Virginia, a handful of other
colleges are not only increasing financial aid but also promising to
give weight to economic class in granting admissions. They say they
want to make an effort to admit more low-income students, just as they
now do for minorities and children of alumni.
"The great colleges and universities were designed to provide for
mobility, to seek out talent," said Anthony W. Marx, president of
Amherst College. "If we are blind to the educational disadvantages
associated with need, we will simply replicate these disadvantages
while appearing to make decisions based on merit."
With several populous states having already banned race-based
preferences and the United States Supreme Court suggesting that it may
outlaw such programs in a couple of decades, the future of affirmative
action may well revolve around economics. Polls consistently show that
programs based on class backgrounds have wider support than those
based on race.
The explosion in the number of nongraduates has also begun to get the
attention of policy makers. This year, New York became one of a small
group of states to tie college financing more closely to graduation
rates, rewarding colleges more for moving students along than for
simply admitting them. Nowhere is the stratification of education more
vivid than here in Virginia, where Thomas Jefferson once tried, and
failed, to set up the nation's first public high schools. At a modest
high school in the Tidewater city of Portsmouth, not far from Mr.
Casteen's boyhood home, a guidance office wall filled with college
pennants does not include one from rarefied Virginia. The colleges
whose pennants are up - Old Dominion University and others that
seem in the realm of the possible - have far lower graduation rates.
Across the country, the upper middle class so dominates elite
universities that high-income students, on average, actually get
slightly more financial aid from colleges than low-income students do.
These elite colleges are so expensive that even many high-income
students receive large grants. In the early 1990's, by contrast,
poorer students got 50 percent more aid on average than the wealthier
ones, according to the College Board, the organization that runs
the SAT entrance exams.
At the other end of the spectrum are community colleges, the two-year
institutions that are intended to be feeders for four-year colleges.
In nearly every one are tales of academic success against tremendous
odds: a battered wife or a combat veteran or a laid-off worker on the
way to a better life. But over all, community colleges tend to be
places where dreams are put on hold.
Most people who enroll say they plan to get a four-year degree
eventually; few actually do. Full-time jobs, commutes and children or
parents who need care often get in the way. One recent national survey
found that about 75 percent of students enrolling in community
colleges said they hoped to transfer to a four-year institution. But
only 17 percent of those who had entered in the mid-1990's made the
switch within five years, according to a separate study. The rest were
out working or still studying toward the two-year degree.
"We here in Virginia do a good job of getting them in," said Glenn
Dubois, chancellor of the Virginia Community College System and
himself a community college graduate. "We have to get better in
getting them out."
'I Wear a Tie Every Day'
College degree or not, Mr. Blevins has the kind of life that many
Americans say they aspire to. He fills it with family, friends, church
and a five-handicap golf game. He does not sit in traffic commuting to
an office park. He does not talk wistfully of a relocated brother or
best friend he sees only twice a year. He does not worry about who
will care for his son while he works and his wife attends community
college to become a physical therapist. His grandparents down the
street watch Lucas, just as they took care of Andy and his two sisters
when they were children. When Mr. Blevins comes home from work, it is
his turn to play with Lucas, tossing him into the air and rolling
around on the floor with him and a stuffed elephant.
Mr. Blevins also sings in a quartet called the Gospel Gentlemen. One
member is his brother-in-law; another lives on Mr. Blevins's street.
In the long white van the group owns, they wend their way along
mountain roads on their way to singing dates at local church
functions, sometimes harmonizing, sometimes ribbing one another or
talking about where to buy golf equipment.
Inside the churches, the other singers often talk to the audience
between songs, about God or a grandmother or what a song means to
them. Mr. Blevins rarely does, but his shyness fades once he is back
in the van with his friends.
At the warehouse, he is usually the first to arrive, around 6:30 in
the morning. The grandson of a coal miner, he takes pride, he says, in
having moved up to become a supermarket buyer. He decides which
bananas, grapes, onions and potatoes the company will sell and makes
sure that there are always enough. Most people with his job have
graduated from college.
"I'm pretty fortunate to not have a degree but have a job where I wear
a tie every day," he said.
He worries about how long it will last, though, mindful of what
happened to his father, Dwight, a decade ago. A high school graduate,
Dwight Blevins was laid off from his own warehouse job and ended up
with another one that paid less and offered a smaller pension.
"A lot of places, they're not looking that you're trained in
something," Andy Blevins said one evening, sitting on his back porch.
"They just want you to have a degree."
Figuring out how to get one is the core quandary facing the nation's
college nongraduates. Many seem to want one. In a New York Times
poll, 43 percent of them called it essential to success, while 42
percent of college graduates and 32 percent of high-school dropouts
did. This in itself is a change from the days when "college boy" was
an insult in many working-class neighborhoods. But once students take
a break - the phrase that many use instead of drop out - the ideal can
quickly give way to reality. Family and work can make a return to
school seem even harder than finishing it in the first place.
After dropping out of Radford, Andy Blevins enrolled part-time in a
community college, trying to juggle work and studies. He lasted a
year. From time to time in the decade since, he has thought about
giving it another try. But then he has wondered if that would be
crazy. He works every third Saturday, and his phone rings on Sundays
when there is a problem with the supply of potatoes or apples. "It
never ends," he said. "There's a never a lull."
To spend more time with Lucas, Mr. Blevins has already cut back on his
singing. If he took night classes, he said, when would he ever see his
little boy? Anyway, he said, it would take years to get a degree
part-time. To him, it is a tug of war between living in the present
and sacrificing for the future.
Few Breaks for the Needy
The college admissions system often seems ruthlessly meritocratic.
Yes, children of alumni still have an advantage. But many other
pillars of the old system - the polite rejections of women or blacks,
the spots reserved for graduates of Choate and Exeter - have crumbled.
This was the meritocracy Mr. Casteen described when he greeted the
parents of freshman in a University of Virginia lecture hall late last
summer. Hailing from all 50 states and 52 foreign countries, the
students were more intelligent and better prepared than he and his
classmates had been, he told the parents in his quiet, deep voice. The
class included 17 students with a perfect SAT score.
If anything, children of privilege think that the system has moved so
far from its old-boy history that they are now at a disadvantage when
they apply, because colleges are trying to diversify their student
rolls. To get into a good college, the sons and daughters of the upper
middle class often talk of needing a higher SAT score than, say, an
applicant who grew up on a farm, in a ghetto or in a factory town.
Some state legislators from Northern Virginia's affluent suburbs have
argued that this is a form of geographic discrimination and have
quixotically proposed bills to outlaw it.
But the conventional wisdom is not quite right. The elite colleges
have not been giving much of a break to the low-income students who
apply. When William G. Bowen, a former president of Princeton,
looked at admissions records recently, he found that if test scores
were equal a low-income student had no better chance than a
high-income one of getting into a group of 19 colleges, including
Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Williams and Virginia.
Athletes, legacy applicants and minority students all got in with
lower scores on average. Poorer students did not.
The findings befuddled many administrators, who insist that admissions
officers have tried to give poorer applicants a leg up. To emphasize
the point, Virginia announced this spring that it was changing its
admissions policy from "need blind" - a term long used to assure
applicants that they would not be punished for seeking financial aid -
to "need conscious." Administrators at Amherst and Harvard have also
recently said that they would redouble their efforts to take into
account the obstacles students have overcome.
"The same score reflects more ability when you come from a less
fortunate background," Mr. Summers, the president of Harvard, said.
"You haven't had a chance to take the test-prep course. You went to a
school that didn't do as good a job coaching you for the test. You
came from a home without the same opportunities for learning."
But it is probably not a coincidence that elite colleges have not yet
turned this sentiment into action. Admitting large numbers of
low-income students could bring clear complications. Too many in a
freshman class would probably lower the college's average SAT score,
thereby damaging its ranking by U.S. News & World Report, a
leading arbiter of academic prestige. Some colleges, like Emory
University in Atlanta, have climbed fast in the rankings over
precisely the same period in which their percentage of low-income
students has tumbled. The math is simple: when a college goes looking
for applicants with high SAT scores, it is far more likely to find
them among well-off teenagers.
More spots for low-income applicants might also mean fewer for the
children of alumni, who make up the fund-raising base for
universities. More generous financial aid policies will probably lead
to higher tuition for those students who can afford the list price.
Higher tuition, lower ranking, tougher admission requirements: they do
not make for an easy marketing pitch to alumni clubs around the
country. But Mr. Casteen and his colleagues are going ahead, saying
the pendulum has swung too far in one direction.
That was the mission of John Blackburn, Virginia's easy-going
admissions dean, when he rented a car and took to the road recently.
Mr. Blackburn thought of the trip as a reprise of the drives Mr.
Casteen took 25 years earlier, when he was the admissions dean,
traveling to churches and community centers to persuade black parents
that the university was finally interested in their children.
One Monday night, Mr. Blackburn came to Big Stone Gap, in a mostly
poor corner of the state not far from Andy Blevins's town. A community
college there was holding a college fair, and Mr. Blackburn set up a
table in a hallway, draping it with the University of Virginia's blue
and orange flag.
As students came by, Mr. Blackburn would explain Virginia's new
admissions and financial aid policies. But he soon realized that the
Virginia name might have been scaring off the very people his pitch
was intended for. Most of the students who did approach the table
showed little interest in the financial aid and expressed little need
for it. One man walked up to Mr. Blackburn and introduced his son as
an aspiring doctor. The father was an ophthalmologist. Other doctors
came by, too. So did some lawyers.
"You can't just raise the UVa flag," Mr. Blackburn said, packing up
his materials at the end of the night, "and expect a lot of low-income
kids to come out."
When the applications started arriving in his office this spring,
there seemed to be no increase in those from low-income students. So
Mr. Blackburn extended the deadline two weeks for everybody, and his
colleagues also helped some applicants with the maze of financial aid
forms. Of 3,100 incoming freshmen, it now seems that about 180 will
qualify for the new financial aid program, up from 130 who would have
done so last year. It is not a huge number, but Virginia
administrators call it a start.
A Big Decision
On a still-dark February morning, with the winter's heaviest snowfall
on the ground, Andy Blevins scraped off his Jeep and began his daily
drive to the supermarket warehouse. As he passed the home of Mike
Nash, his neighbor and fellow gospel singer, he noticed that the car
was still in the driveway. For Mr. Nash, a school counselor and the
only college graduate in the singing group, this was a snow day.
Mr. Blevins later sat down with his calendar and counted to 280: the
number of days he had worked last year. Two hundred and eighty days -
six days a week most of the time - without ever really knowing what
the future would hold.
"I just realized I'm going to have to do something about this," he
said, "because it's never going to end."
In the weeks afterward, his daydreaming about college and his
conversations about it with his sister Leanna turned into serious
research. He requested his transcripts from Radford and from
Virginia Highlands Community College and figured out that he had
about a year's worth of credits. He also talked to Leanna about how he
could become an elementary school teacher. He always felt that he
could relate to children, he said. The job would take up 180 days, not
280. Teachers do not usually get laid off or lose their pensions or
have to take a big pay cut to find new work.
So the decision was made. On May 31, Andy Blevins says, he will return
to Virginia Highlands, taking classes at night; the Gospel Gentlemen
are no longer booking performances. After a year, he plans to take
classes by video and on the Web that are offered at the community
college but run by Old Dominion, a Norfolk, Va., university with a
big group of working-class students.
"I don't like classes, but I've gotten so motivated to go back to
school," Mr. Blevins said. "I don't want to, but, then again, I do."
He thinks he can get his bachelor's degree in three years. If he gets
it at all, he will have defied the odds.
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