[Paleopsych] Richard Newhauser's Course Outline for The Seven Deadly Sins as Cultural Constructions in the Middle Ages
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Richard Newhauser's Course Outline for The Seven Deadly Sins as Cultural
Constructions in the Middle Ages
NEH Summer Seminar 2004
The Seven Deadly Sins as Cultural Constructions
in the Middle Ages
There has been a great deal of attention devoted to the concepts of
The Seven Deadly Sins recently in popular forms of discourse, from the
new series of cultural studies at Oxford University Press and the
outstanding articles on the sins by major novelists and poets
published in The New York Times Book Review in 1993 to an hour-long
special broadcast the same year on MTV and the feature-length film
Seven of 1995. From elite culture to popular culture, in other words,
the seven deadly sins have retained their interest as cultural
constructions. Gluttony - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest,
Kegyesrendi Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) It is time to revisit them in
research on the period of their greatest dissemination and utility,
the Middle Ages. The most recent research on this topic, in fact, has
allowed these seven concepts to emerge from a narrowly theological
inquiry and to be seen, individually and as a series, in the same
light as other historically defined objects of study central to the
Humanistic endeavor. By focusing on the major cultural contexts in
which the sins were defined, the seminar will seek to deepen the
participants' appreciation for the ways in which the conception of
morality in the Middle Ages was a response to varying cultural
factors, and will make the study of the sins available for inclusion
in the participants' regular college instruction.
The seminar has been designed so as to provide a location in which
scholars in the Humanities and the Social Sciences can discuss the
ways in which the culture of the Middle Ages constructed morality.
The practical goals of the summer will be for me to assist the
participants in their research project, and to make available to the
participants in the seminar an exciting group of guest lecturers. The
results of the seminar will, I hope, be disseminated in special
sessions at the annual Medieval Congress in Kalamazoo and, possibly,
in a volume of essays that I will edit.
I am seeking to recruit participants drawn from a wide variety of
fields: college teachers who specialize in anthropology, history, and
the study of literature, as well as specialists in art history,
sociology, and those with a primary focus on theology and ethics.
From two years of residence at institutes for advanced study in
America and Britain, I am aware that interaction among disciplines is
an essential ingredient in achieving a reinvigorated educational
environment that will bring a new vision to the relationship between
the sins and the niches of culture that were of vital importance in
the construction of these moral categories. The participants will be
expected to have a basic knowledge and understanding of medieval
culture and history in its broad outlines, not limited to their own
fields of specialized research. It will be helpful, although not a
prerequisite, if participants have a working knowledge of French and
German, in particular, or other modern European languages in which the
scholarship on the sins is regularly published. It will be especially
useful if they can read Medieval Latin. Nevertheless, the majority of
the medieval texts used in the seminar will be made available to the
seminar in their original languages with an accompanying English
NEH support for the study of the seven deadly sins at American
universities began in 1978 with an NEH Summer Seminar for College and
University Teachers at the University of Pennsylvania, directed by
Prof. Siegfried Wenzel. The present seminar seeks to follow this
educational innovation and reinvigorate its content, in the current
climate of ethical discourse in our culture, by taking maximum
advantage of the unique manuscript, research, and human resources
available at the University of Cambridge, England, and its institute
for advanced study, Clare Hall.
The Study of the Seven Deadly Sins: From Dogma to Cultural Constructs
The seven deadly sins (pride, envy, wrath, avarice, sloth, gluttony,
lust in their most frequent order) are sometimes thought of as
inflexible categories of medieval dogma or, when they are found in
examples of contemporary popular culture (such as the feature-length
film Seven), as signifiers for something of an arcane perversion, a
vehicle for an evil which is both mysterious and ancient. Such a
view, of course, does not address the longevity of the idea of these
seven constructs as comprehending the basic categories of evil in
western culture. The very fact that even as this list of seven sins
was being replaced by psychological, utilitarian, and other models of
behavioral analysis it still could be adopted from Catholic to
Protestant use during the Reformation, and further adopted for secular
utilization both before and after that point, makes the seven sins a
worthy object of cultural inquiry in the Humanities. Current research
in the intellectual history of moral thought in the Middle Ages has
demonstrated, moreover, how nuanced and differentiated the constructs
actually were that came to be known as the seven deadly sins, how much
their definition depended on a complex interaction with the cultural
environments in which they were enumerated. The most recent research
on this topic, in other words, has allowed these seven concepts to
emerge from a narrowly theological inquiry and to be seen,
individually and as a series, in the same light as other historically
defined objects of study central to the Humanistic endeavor. In this
way, current research does not define the categories of the sins
merely as theological entities, but rather as differentiated
articulations of what can be called discrete forms of an interrupted
actualization of socially accepted forms of desire. Parallel to this
definition, the virtues can be understood as ideals of the
socialization of desire.
In the 19^th and earlier 20^th century, and primarily in German
scholarship, the sins were studied in three main contexts: First,
they were seen as part of the history of Catholic dogma on matters of
moral theology, something which appears clearly in the sub-title of
the major work on the sins and dogma in this period, the monograph by
Otto Zöckler. Second, the origins of the sins became part of the
historical study of monastic spirituality in Egypt, where established
lists of evil thoughts (later reformulated as the sins) first
appeared. The focus here was on the debt this aspect of Egyptian
monasticism owed to both Hellenism and Early Christian literature.
Envy - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest, Kegyesrendi
Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) Stefan Schiwietz's three-volume Das
morgenländische Mönchtum, published between 1904 and 1938, is typical
of endeavors in this second context, as is the monograph by Siegfried
Wibbing. Third, the iconography of vices and virtues formed the
subject of a number of studies of medieval art, in particular in the
tradition of Prudentius's Psychomachia, such as one can find in Adolf
Katzenellenbogen's classic monograph. The common factor in these
studies is a tendency to examine their subject from structural and
historical perspectives in which the content of the sins is imagined
to be relatively stable.
Much of this earlier research was summarized and extended into the
area of literary scholarship in 1952 in the monumental monograph by
Morton Bloomfield, which not only was the first major American study
of the sins, but also contributed a far more comprehensive view of the
place of the sins in medieval culture that was also sensitive to some
of the major changes in the composition of the lists of sins in
response to varying cultural factors. Bloomfield's work proved highly
influential in the educational context of American universities, in
particular, but it also served as the starting point for the ongoing
interest among subsequent European medievalists in this aspect of
medieval moral thought. The publication in 1967 of Siegfried Wenzel's
study of sloth and his fundamental article in Speculum the next year
detailing problems in the history of the sins not addressed by
Bloomfield's work set the agenda for much historiographical work to
come. As a result, factors such as the place of the virtues in the
comprehension of moral thought in the Middle Ages, the influence of
Aristotle, and the genesis of rationales for the sins in Scholastic
thought were the focus of some later work, such as the recent studies
by Carla Casagrande and Silvana Vecchio. At the same time, the study
of individual sins has been, and continues to be, advanced in work by
Lester Little, Alexander Murray, or more recently Richard Newhauser on
avarice; Mireille Vincent-Cassy on envy and sloth; and Pierre Payer or
Ruth Karras on lust.
Yet much scholarship of the last twenty years has also moved beyond an
agenda in which the seven deadly sins are seen to function almost
hegemonically in the environment of pastoral theology. John Bossy's
important essay in 1988 articulated ways in which the seven sins were
seen by late-medieval culture to be inadequate, a topic which was in
some regards anticipated by Bloomfield's work, but not fully realized
there. Likewise, analyses of other enumerations of morality in the
Middle Ages, like Casagrande and Vecchio on the sins of the tongue, or
Newhauser on the nine accessory sins, have called attention to the way
in which cultural exigencies (such as the oral nature of preaching and
confession) elicited a response that gives evidence of the flexibility
of medieval moral thought. But recent scholarship has also begun to
address topics and use methodologies that open the question of the
cultural use of the sins to a more diverse analysis and call into
question some of the assumptions of earlier scholarship. Barbara
Rosenwein et al. on anger, for example, is deeply invested in the
current debate on the use and construction of the emotions in
historical research, Michael Theunissen has questioned the supposed
historical break between the melancholy articulated in antique texts,
sloth in the Middle Ages, and modernity's representation of
depression. Other approaches to the delineation of the moral
categories of the sins have adopted methods of psychological research
(Patrick Boyde), or the findings of anthropology (Newhauser), or a
gender studies perspective (Karras) to yield new insight into the ways
in which cultures fill the categories of moral analysis with an
With so much recent attention focused on the sins, it seems that the
time is right to revisit the content of a past NEH Summer Seminar with
a new group of interested and engaged college teachers in order to
reinvigorate the educational potential of the study of the seven
deadly sins at American universities.
The Cultural Contexts of the Seven Deadly Sins
In order to allow the participants to clearly relate the presentation
of the sins to a specific context, it is proposed here that the
seminar focus on the locations of medieval moral thought and their
interaction with the contents of the presentations themselves. It is
in this way that one can speak of the sins as cultural constructions.
The following narrative will lay the foundation for the content and
implementation of the project.
The longevity and centrality of the seven sins testifies to the
authoritativeness and versatility of what began as an element of
monastic education. Their origin is found in the list of eight "evil
thoughts" (gluttony, lust, avarice, wrath, sadness, sloth, vainglory,
pride) that developed in the hermit communities of northern Egypt.
These eight logismoi may have been common in the oral teaching of the
Egyptian monks, Avarice - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest,
Kegyesrendi Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) but in written form they are
found earliest in the Greek works of Evagrius Ponticus (c. 345399).
In the octad, Evagrius systematized the theory of demonic intrusions
on the contemplative work of the anchorite so that the monk would be
better armed to defeat the demons who used temptations to hinder his
attainment of apatheia ("passionlessness"). John Cassian (c.
360433/35) learned of the octad from Evagrius and made the order of
logismoi in Evagrius's De octo spiritibus malitiae central to his
Latin works written for cenobitic monasteries in Marseilles. Here,
the "evil thoughts" were now termed vitia, each with a list of
sub-sins to which it gives rise. Cassian emphasized the concatenation
of the first six sins, a sequential relationship in which an excess of
one vice becomes the foundation for the subsequent one. Vainglory and
pride become dangerous precisely when the previous six have been
extirpated. The ascetic orientation of these early monastic octads,
written for communities of holy men, can be seen in the way control of
bodily desires lays the foundation for the defeat of more spiritual
temptations. Pope Gregory I (c. 540604) synthesized Cassian's
monastic thought with Augustine's view of sin as reflective of the
will. Using most of the octad's components, Gregory reversed the
order of sins: what he explicitly called two "carnal sins" come after
five spiritual ones, with pride serving as the root of all seven
"principal vices": vainglory, envy, wrath, sadness, avarice,
gluttony, lust (Moralia in Iob, 31.45.8790). When pride itself was
included in the list, the result could be understood as a variant of a
sin octad, but in either case, Gregory considered these sins the
origins of all sinfulness. The excesses of the ego depicted in the
heptad's spiritual sins emphasize the importance of humility for
Gregory as the central virtue of active obedience to authority within
the community in moral, monastic, and secular political terms. Pride
was most commonly (though not exclusively) considered the foundation
of sinfulness in the early Middle Ages. Gregory asserts that the
determination of intention in any act necessitates close examination
of motives that may reveal a gap between the appearance of virtue and
its origin in the impulses of vice. He presupposes, thus, a certain
amount of moral ambiguity in any act.
The heptad reflects an ideal of hierocratic ideology and social
hierarchy. In the early Middle Ages many other presentations of vices
and virtues were addressed to the needs of the nobility: Martin of
Braga composed the very popular Formula vitae honestae (57079), a
treatise on the cardinal virtues, for the moral instruction of the
Suevic King Miro and his court. Typical of the aristocrats directly
involved in the ethical renewal of the Carolingian reforms is Wido,
Margrave of the Marca Britanniae, to whom Alcuin addressed his
influential Liber de virtutibus et vitiis (c. 800). The reformers
emphasized ethica, the study of virtue leading to correct living,
along with the liberal arts and logic as the disciplines of
philosophy: Alcuin frames his treatise with systems of virtue (at the
beginning, theological; at the end, cardinal virtues). His
compilation of scriptural and patristic texts as governing authorities
served the further end of aiding uniformity in the Carolingian church,
which allies his and other Carolingian and post-Carolingian treatises
on moral theology with the genre of the florilegium.
The internalization of concepts of the individual and spirituality in
the late eleventh and twelfth centuries anchored moral theology in
psychological processes. Hugh of St. Victor (10961141) reinterpreted
concatenation as a description of developing sinfulness which began
with the common classification of sin according to the subject it is
directed against: pride removes the sinner from God, envy from his
neighbor, wrath from himself. The last four sins marked stages in the
sinner's descent into slavery to sin (De quinque septenis). The
intended audience of this view of the sins now includes new classes of
an urban population. The renewal of interest in Augustinian theology
in the 12^th century marks a tendency to see caritas as the most
important virtue instead of Gregory the Great's focus on humility.
The Ethics of Peter Abelard (1079-1142) for the first time
systematically analyzed the importance of intention and conscience,
i.e., the inner disposition of each human being, in the determination
of what constitutes vice and virtue. The interconnection between
monastic theology and the developing "theology of the schools"
produced many other presentations using the symmetry of vices and
virtues (or related qualities, especially the gifts of the Holy
Spirit). The Liber de fructu carnis et spiritus by Conrad of Hirsau
(c. 1070c. 1150) treats the Gregorian heptad and an opposed list
(theological plus cardinal virtues) and was influential in the
development of illuminations of matching trees of vices and virtues;
Alan of Lille's De virtutibus et de vitiis et de donis spiritus sancti
(c. 117080) examines the gifts of the Holy Spirit, defines the sins
and their progeny, and makes the theological virtues a category of one
of the cardinal virtues; the façade of Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris
(early 13^th cent.) arranges personifications of virtues with roundels
of exemplified sins in a way that summarizes types of representation
of both. With the shift to a growing profit economy in the eleventh
and twelfth centuries, treatments of avarice and its sub-sins (usury,
illicit merchant practices, etc.) began to vie with pride more
frequently in discussions of which sin is the root of all others.
Early Scholastic literature began to treat sin and virtue within a
wider approach to systematic theology, though attempts to adduce a
theoretical rationale for a system of sins (generally as aberrations
of the human will) produced any number of classifications of the
sins: Peter Lombard's Sentences (c. 1150), the standard textbook for
Scholastic education in theology, had suggested four: Augustine's
distinction of sins by their origin in cupidity or fear; Jerome's
classification of sins of thought, word, or deed; the distinction
according to the subject sin is directed against; and the Gregorian
heptad (Sent., 2.3044). The seven sins could not easily be justified
as the most important or the most serious sins. The phenomenology of
sin and virtue became central to theology as a discipline, but this
opened up new avenues of classification. The use of Aristotle's
Nichomachean Ethics reinforced academic moral theology's move beyond
hamartiology (and an interest in only seven chief sins) to instead
become a theory of virtue, devoted to questions touching the divisions
of the virtues (intellectual, moral, theological), their causes, and
The importance of the sacrament of penance influenced frequent
Scholastic attempts to distinguish between explicit violations of
God's law (deadly sins) and acts that do not directly breach this law
(venial sins). The attempts to define venial sin also included the
idea of a diminution of any inherent human sinfulness due in part to
the imperfect nature of human intention or human knowledge, as one can
see, for example, in "Le profit de savoir quel est péché mortel et
véniel" and other works by Jean Gerson (d. 1429). The seven sins no
longer suffice as a schematic organization of the multitude of errors
that Gerson discusses, which in one treatise amount to 58 different
kinds of deception by the devil (i.e., vices disguised as virtues).
With an endless choice of feigned virtues that self-examination will
expose as sins, Gersons sinner has arrived at what has been described
as a paralysis of the soul typical of a late-medieval guilt culture.
An interest in the Jewish scriptures that had begun in the twelfth
century, uneasiness with the lack of a biblical foundation for the
capital vices, and a concern to bind morality into a juridical system
resulted in the emergence of the Ten Commandments, especially among
Franciscan theologians beginning with Duns Scotus, as the moral system
that would be universally taught after the sixteenth century.
In pastoral theology, art, and literature, the capital vice tradition
remained dominant through the sixteenth century. The reforming
efforts of the Church to control the content of catechesis by
reinstructing congregations at all social levels in matters of the
faith culminated in canon 21 of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
Wrath - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest, Kegyesrendi
Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) that legislated confession for all
Christians at least once a year. Many regional councils demanded that
clergy preach on vices and virtues, as well. The examination of the
conscience envisioned here included material specific to women and all
classes of society. The question of how to organize the sins to be
confessed and preached was answered very early by drawing on the
capital vices, which now became the seven deadly sins. Robert of
Flamborough's early thirteenth-century Liber poenitentialis
recommended the heptad precisely because the genetic relationship of
the vices (and their progeny) facilitated confession. Eventually, the
number of progeny was vastly expanded, but the basic classification of
seven chief sins and their chief remedies remained, though often in
tandem with other catechetical systems. The outpouring of penitential
and homiletic texts treating vice and virtue, initially addressed to
the clergy, was the work especially of the Dominicans and Franciscans
(in particular in the cities), and it influenced the development of
vernacular works on morality, now addressed to the urban laity.
William Peraldus's widely transmitted Summa virtutum ac vitiorum
(12361250), which played a seminal role in the development of the sins
of the tongue, influenced important vernacular treatments of the vices
and virtues such as Friar Laurent of Bois' Somme le roi (1280) and
(indirectly) Chaucer's "Parson's Tale" (late 14^th century). The
recognition of the cognitive value of images for educating pious
Christians drew in the late Middle Ages on the intersection between
pastoral literature, the natural-philosophical understanding of
animals, and traditional moral iconography to produce emblematic
presentations of the vices and virtues in many media and for many
functions, from supporting the Benedictine reform to promoting civic
ethics (as in the Regensburg tapestry of the vices and virtues, c.
1400). The confluence of pastoral literature and a high degree of
emblematic iconography also characterizes late-medieval and
Renaissance literary treatments of the vices and virtues, from Dante's
(12651321) Divine Comedy to morality plays.
Content and Implementation of the Project
The weekly work of the seminar will generally be conducted in meetings
at Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, from 9:30 a.m. to noon, on
Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday. Excursions have also been planned to
St. Mary's Church, Hardwick (near Cambridge), and to important
manuscript collections in Cambridge itself: St. John's College, the
University Library, and the Fitzwilliam Museum.
In addition to attending the sessions of the seminar, the
participants will be able to use the facilities of the Cambridge
University Library to work on their research project and they will be
able to consult me about their work during regularly scheduled
individual conferences. On part of Wednesday and on Thursday of the
last week of the seminar the participants will give a brief
presentation of the initial results of their research.
During each week, the work of the seminar will focus on a series of
readings that grew out of a particularly important cultural location
in the history of the sins. Sections of these texts, with English
translations wherever possible, will be distributed to the
participants at the opening of the seminar. During each week, the
work of the seminar will emphasize one or more of the sins, not to the
exclusion of others, but so as to concentrate the analysis of the
connection between the specific context for that week and the content
of the sin or sins. In this way, the flexibility of the category of
moral thought will emerge as it adjusts to changes in cultural
Week One: Desert and Monastery (July 12-15). Visiting faculty:
Prof. Ian Goodyer
The opening session of the seminar on Monday will be taken up with
individual meetings between me and each participant in order to
discuss the independent project s/he will work on for the summer and
the anticipated outcomes. Each participant will schedule at least one
more individual conference with me during the third week of the
The first formal session on Wednesday will briefly characterize the
kinds of interactions between contexts and content that the seminar
will deal with in greater detail for the next weeks. For the early
monks, sloth and tristitia (sadness) were particularly characteristic
sins, being defined in ways that made them especially responsive to
the situation of monks engaged in the intensive work of meditation.
These sins, then, will be the focus of the first week, illustrated by
treatises by Evagrius Ponticus (De malignis cogitationibus, Praktikos,
etc.) and John Cassian (Collationes patrum and De institutis
coenobiorum), in particular, with Gregory the Great (Morals on Job)
serving as a transition to the work of the next week and Conrad of
Hirsau (Liber de fructu carnis et spiritus) providing a view of some
of the continuity of monastic thought. We will use Siegfried Wenzel,
The Sin of Sloth: Acedia in Medieval Thought and Literature (Chapel
Hill, NC, 1967), and more recent work by Rüdiger Augst and Gabriel
Bunge to understand sloth as a monastic vice. With the visit of
Professor Ian Goodyer during the first week, we will also begin to
develop a psychological model for the analysis of these two sins, in
particular, based on the psychiatric analysis of adolescent
depression, a field in which Professor Goodyer is an internationally
renowned expert. His articles on this subject have appeared in such
publications as the Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Psychological
Medicine, and the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Week Two: Court (July 19-22). Visiting faculty: Prof. David Ganz
The focus of the seminar during the second week will be the medieval
court as a factor in defining aristocratic morality. In pride,
medieval moral thought identified a sin considered particularly
characteristic of noblemen and represented pictorially in outlandish
clothing. Wrath, however, was also frequently attributed to the
nobility, though as we will see by reading the works of Prudentius
(Psychomachia), Martin of Braga (Formula vitae honestae, De ira, and
De superbia), and Alcuin (Liber de virtutibus et vitiis), the
potential ambiguity of moral designations can also be seen here.
Wrath, in fact, was a defining characteristic of masculinity, as
Richard Barton has shown in Anger's Past: The Social Uses of an
Emotion in the Middle Ages, ed. Barbara Rosenwein (Ithaca and London,
1998), and as much praised for its God-like qualities as condemned for
its irrationality. The dilemma here is obvious, for if overweening
ego was to be condemned as pride, God-like wrath could be praised only
with difficulty. The seminar will explore the ways in which the
tensions here respond to tensions in the court, especially in the
Carolingian period. David Ganz, Professor of Latin Paleography,
Department of English and Classics, King's College, University of
London, will open the discussion of the iconography of the vices by
presenting the participants with some important manuscripts at the
Fitzwilliam Museum. Professor Ganz's work on early-medieval
libraries and the intellectual history of the Carolingian period is
well known; his work has appeared in the New Cambridge Medieval
History and in a wide series of journals and collections of essays.
Week Three: University (July 26-29): Visiting faculty: Dr. István
Bejczy, Dr. Paul Binski
With the growth of the universities one can note a tendency to
refashion moral thought as a theology of virtue rather than an
analysis of sin, as can be observed fully formed in the sections of
Aquinas's Summa theologiae the seminar will read in the third week.
Dr. István Bejczy will emphasize this fact in his lecture. Dr.
Bejczy's expertise in 12^th-century moral theology that stems from his
current project directing six research fellows in the production of a
multi-volume history of the cardinal virtues will benefit the
participants in the seminar in the examination of the origins of
academic theology and the ways in which academic discourse shaped the
connection between vices and virtues. Partially as a pedagogic
device, and partially as a presentation of mental acuity, parallel
lists of sins and their virtuous opponents were drawn up by authors
like Hugh of St. Victor (De quinque septenis) and Alan of Lille (De
virtutibus et de vitiis et de donis spiritus sancti). At the same
time, the importance of intention central to Peter Abelard's work
(especially his Ethics) raises the question that anthropologists ask
about the determination of another person's inner state, namely what
right is invoked to allow the interpreter to say s/he has seen the
truth of that inner state (we will use an English translation of my
essay Zur Zweideutigkeit in der Moraltheologie. Als Tugenden
verkleidete Laster, in P. von Moos, ed., Der Fehltritt. Vergehen und
Versehen in der Vormoderne [Köln, Weimar, Wien, 2001], pp. 377-402).
Finally, the interest in demonology witnessed in the work of Peter
Lombard, for example, will be seen to influence the conception of
envy. Dr. Paul Binski, Reader in the History of Medieval Art,
University of Cambridge, will provide a transition to 13th-century
English art and the era of reform by focusing on the iconography of
the sculptures of the Salisbury chapter house, the king's chamber at
Westminster, the Apocalypses, and such pastoral texts as the Somme le
Roi. Dr. Binski's studies of Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets:
Kingship and the Representation of Power 1200-1400 (Yale Univ. Press,
1995) and the forthcoming Art and Authority in the Age of Becket (Yale
Univ. Press, 2004) have established him as a leading scholar of the
history of medieval English art. (bibliobraphy)
Week Four: Church and Pastoralia (August 2-5): Visiting faculty:
Dr. Richard Beadle, Dr. Sylvia Huot
Corporeal sins had long been separated from sins considered
"spiritual" in moral thought, but the material for the fourth week's
work will allow us to examine the class distinctions implicated in
some of the ways the sins of the flesh were presented to penitents,
especially in the popular work of William Peraldus (Summa de vitiis et
virtutbus) and the vernacular treatises in English and French to be
read for this week (Geoffrey Chaucer, "The Parson's Tale"; Jean
Gerson, "Le profit de savoir quel est péché mortel et véniel"). Both
lords and peasants drank to excess and had erotic experiences, but
they did not get drunk or have intercourse in the same way. The kinds
of wine the aristocracy drank were different from what the commoners
could afford; the kind of debauchery considered typical of the
nobility was also different from peasant indiscretions. We will be
visited this week by Dr. Richard Beadle, Reader in English Literature
and an internationally known expert on English manuscripts of the
later Middle Ages, whose edition of the York Mystery Plays is an
essential tool for teaching early English drama, and Dr. Sylvia Huot,
Reader in Medieval French Literature, whose work on the manuscripts
and interpretation of the Romance of the Rose will guide us in
understanding this important Old French treatment of courtly and moral
values. Both guest lecturers will help the seminar focus on the
question of whose interests were served by insisting on class
distinctions in moral analysis. Both speakers will also continue with
the presentation of manuscripts with vernacular pastoral works in
Cambridge libraries. During Dr. Beadle's presentation, we will meet
in the Old Library at St. John's College, one of the outstanding
examples of college library architecture in Cambridge. During Dr.
Huot's presentation, we will meet in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
Week Five: City (August 9-12): Visiting faculty: Dr. Nigel Harris
The final week will return the seminar to the topic of sloth, but now
conceived in connection with, or at a distance to, economic activity.
Work, as a profit-making activity in late-medieval cities, will be the
focus of this week's seminar study, both in its relationship with
leisure and in its problematic connection with avarice. Both John
Gower (Confessio Amantis) and Dante, in particular, are conscious of
the ways in which the wealth of cities is the result of the
acquisitive urge. They can both condemn avarice, but they also evince
ways of valorizing the search for profit as necessary for the
functioning of the city and essential to their literary well being.
Work by the historian John Bossy and the Dante scholar Patrick Boyde
will help elucidate the ways in which new formulations of sins and
virtue were beginning to replace the seven deadly sins as schematic
presentations of morality. The guest lecture by Dr. Nigel Harris,
Senior Lecturer in German Studies, University of Birmingham, will
focus the attention of the seminar on the ways in which urban politics
in the Austrian/Bavarian area influenced the production of a civic
ethics that also empties avarice of some of its onerousness. Dr.
Harris is the editor of a major text on the vices produced in
late-medieval Austria, the Etymachia, a battle of personified vices
and virtues. (bibliobraphy)
Project Faculty and Staff
A word about myself: much of my scholarship has been focused on the
history of the virtues and vices from late antiquity to the early
modern period. I am a former Visiting Distinguished Professor in the
History Department at the Katholieke Universiteit, Nijmegen, Holland;
a Fellow at the National Humanities Center; the holder of two NEH
Summer Stipends; the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and a
Fellowship from the ACLS; and a Life Member of Clare Hall, University
of Cambridge. I regularly teach a seminar for undergraduates at
Trinity University entitled "Sins and Sinners in Western Culture" that
examines changing understandings of morality in the cultural contexts
of the Middle Ages and beyond. My publications have focused in
particular on the genre of treatments of the vices (The Treatise on
Vices and Virtues in Latin and the Vernacular, Typologie des sources
du moyen âge occidental, 68 ), the sin of avarice (The Early
History of Greed [Cambridge University Press, 2000]) and curiosity as
a vice (articles in Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift and a number of
collections of essays). My complete vita can be found online at
The seminar seeks to encourage interaction between the American
participants and some of the finest European scholars working on
questions of medieval moral constructs and other experts whose work
will help to revitalize the study of the sins in the Middle Ages. A
number of these scholars have appointments at the University of
Cambridge, others are only a short distance away. These visiting
instructors will provide invaluable lectures for the seminar and join
the participants for lunch and informal conversation after the
Dr. Ian Goodyer, MD, Fellow, Wolfson College, University of Cambridge,
and Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of
Psychiatry, University of Cambridge. An internationally renowned
expert on adolescent depression, Prof. Goodyer's work will aid the
seminar in constructing a paradigm for the psychological analysis of
sloth and tristitia (sadness), in particular.
Dr. David Ganz, Professor of Latin Paleography, Department of English
and Classics, and Director, Centre for Late Antique and Medieval
Studies, King's College, University of London. Prof. Ganz's knowledge
of Carolingian ethics and important early manuscripts in the
Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge will give the participants direct
contact with important primary sources for the study of the sins.
Dr. Sylvia Huot, Fellow, Pembroke College, University of Cambridge,
and Reader in Medieval French Literature, University of Cambridge.
Dr. Huot's expertise in medieval French literature of all types and
illuminated manuscripts of French origin in Cambridge libraries will
deepen the participants' understanding of pictorial representations of
the sins and the breadth of their transmission.
Dr. Richard Beadle, Fellow, St. John's College, University of
Cambridge, and Lecturer in English, University of Cambridge. Dr.
Beadle is an internationally known expert on English manuscripts of
the later Middle Ages and will provide the participants with an
insider's look at the English texts on the sins in the manuscript and
rare book collection at St. John's College.
Dr. Paul Binski, Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, and Reader in the
History of Medieval Art, University of Cambridge, Department of
History of Art. Dr. Binski is one of the leading authorities on
English art in the high and later Middle Ages. He will help the
seminar place groups of virtues, vices, and remedies in the context of
13th-century English art and the era of reform.
Dr. Nigel Harris, Senior Lecturer, Department of German Studies,
University of Birmingham. Dr. Harris's expertise in the interaction
between lay and clerical groups in Bavaria and Austria during the
later Middle Ages will help make comprehensible the ways in which an
urban environment and urban politics influenced the content and
presentation of pastoral theology.
Dr. István Bejczy, Senior Researcher, Department of History,
Katholieke Universiteit, Nijmegen, Holland. Dr. Bejczy's expertise in
12^th-century moral theology that stems from his current project
directing six research fellows in the production of a multi-volume
history of the cardinal virtues will benefit the participants in the
seminar in the examination of the origins of academic theology and the
ways in which academic discourse shaped the connection between vices
Selection of Participants
Selection Process and Criteria
Applications will be evaluated by a committee composed of Prof.
Richard G. Newhauser and Prof. Siegfried Wenzel, Emeritus, Department
of English at the University of Pennsylvania. The committee will, of
course, pay close attention to the résumé and the quality of the essay
which forms part of the application that each potential participant
submits, but at the same time it will attempt to create a diverse
group with a wide range of disciplines and interests in order to
achieve a cross-fertilization of ideas. The committee will be
particularly interested in supporting participants who plan to
incorporate the outcomes of the seminar in their teaching or design
new courses around the seven deadly sins.
Institutional Context: Clare Hall, University of Cambridge
The physical setting of the seminar could hardly be trumped by any
place more conducive to study and research. The staff member of the
seminar at Clare Hall will help register the participants at the
University Library so they will have reading privileges at the college
and faculty libraries associated with the University of Cambridge and
at the University Library itself, one of the finest open-stacks
libraries in the world (open 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. on weekdays and
from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on Saturday). Participants will be
especially encouraged to become familiar with the University Library's
special collections rooms for manuscripts and early printed books.
Both have been newly renovated.
Clare Hall, the seminar's home, has been an independent college for
graduate education in the University of Cambridge since it received a
Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth II in 1984. It is located on
spacious grounds along Herschel Road directly behind the University
Library and a brief walk from the Sidgwick Arts site which houses the
faculties of Religion, Modern Languages, English, History, and
Anthropology. The college has at any one time over 150 graduate
students from 40 countries and a large number of visiting fellows, so
that it serves as Britain's most active institute for advanced study.
It is, thus, an ideal location for a Summer Seminar because of its
ongoing intellectual environment. The college also has modest sports
facilities: a swimming pool, a gym, and my favorite access to squash
courts. If participants are interested in punting on the Cam, the
college has a punt which can be rented. More detailed information
about the college is available at http://www.clarehall.cam.ac.uk/.
Participants will be able to use the college computer rooms for
Internet access, printing, word processing, and e-mail (for which they
will need an Internet accessible e-mail account). The computer labs
are fully equipped with PCs and Macs and are generally accessible 24
hours per day. We have also been granted the use of the Robert
Honeycombe Building on the grounds of Clare Hall as a dormitory for
most of the participants in the seminar. It consists of 13 student
rooms: 12 singles and 1 double. The rooms are not ensuite but have
good bathroom facilities on each floor. There is also a kitchen and
common room with a television. The communal areas will be cleaned
daily and the bedrooms will be cleaned and linens changed once a
week. These accommodations will cost £500 (currently about $850) per
room for the five weeks of the seminar. Two participants will be able
to share a two-bedroom flat in the Gillian Beer House on the grounds
of the college. Here, too, kitchen facilities and a weekly linen
service are included in the price of £1400 for the flat for the five
weeks of the seminar (£700 per person [currently about $1,190]).
Neither of these accommodations is suitable for families. While there
is an organization in Cambridge that can locate accommodations for
families in the city, these will be considerably more expensive than
what Clare Hall has offered us for individual participants. The
college provides meals on all weekdays at the following costs: lunch
£9.50; dinner £9.50; Wednesday dinner £15.00 (served with wine). I
will be making arrangements with scholars who are in residence in
Cambridge to have informal lunches with us once or twice per week
during the seminar, but these lunches will be held in the house I will
rent for the summer at Clare Hall or in the Robert Honeycombe
Participants will receive a stipend of $ 3,250. Since the seminar
will be held overseas, each participant will receive a check for this
full amount before the seminar begins.
Application information can be found here. Completed applications
should be postmarked no later than March 1, 2004, and should be
addressed as follows:
Director, NEH Summer Seminar 2004
Department of English
One Trinity Place
San Antonio, TX 78212-7200
Applications can also be sent to me as an e-mail attachment formatted
in Microsoft Word addressed to: rnewhaus at trinity.edu.
The most important part of the application is the essay that must be
submitted as part of the complete application. This essay should
include any personal and academic information about you that is
relevant to your application; your reasons for applying to this
particular project; your interest, both intellectual and personal, in
the topic; your qualifications to do the work of the project and make
a contribution to it; what you hope to accomplish by participation,
including any individual research and writing projects; and the
relation of the study to your teaching.
I. Primary Presentations
a. Desert and Monastery
Cassian, John. Collationes patrum. Edited and translated by E.
Pichery. 3 vols. SC 42 [New ed., 1966], 54 [New ed., 1967], 64.
Paris: Cerf, 19551959.
---. De institutis coenobiorum. Edited and translated by Jean-Claude
Guy. SC 109. Paris: Cerf, 1965.
Conrad of Hirsau. Liber de fructu carnis et spiritus. PL
Evagrius Ponticus. De malignis cogitationibus. In Évagre le
Pontique: Sur les pensées, edited by Paul Géhin, Claire Guillaumont,
and Antoine Guillaumont. SC 438. Paris: Cerf, 1998.
---. Praktikos. In Évagre le Pontique: Traité pratique ou le moine,
edited and translated by Antoine Guillaumont and Claire Guillaumont.
2 vols. SC 17071. Paris: Cerf, 1971.
---. De octo spiritibus malitiae. PG 79:1145A64D.
---. De vitiis quae opposita sunt virtutibus. PG 79:113944.
Gregory the Great. Moralia in Iob. Edited by M. Adriaen. 3 vols.
CCSL 143143B. Turnhout: Brepols, 19791985.
Alcuin. Liber de virtutibus et vitiis. PL 101:61338.
Martin of Braga. Formula vitae honestae, De , and De superbia. In
Martini episcopi Bracarensis opera omnia, edited by C. W, Barlow,
23650, 150-58, 69-73. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy
in Rome, 12. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1950.
Prudentius. Psychomachia. In Aurelii Prudentii Clementis carmina.
Edited by M. P. Cunningham. CCL 126. Turnhout: Brepols, 1966.
Abelard, Peter. Peter Abelard's Ethics: An Edition with
Introduction. Edited by D. E. Luscombe. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.
Alan of Lille. Liber poenitentialis. Edited by Jean Longère. 2
vols. Analecta Mediaevalia Namurcensia, 17-18. Louvain: Editions
---. De virtutibus et de vitiis et de donis spiritus sancti. Edited
by Odo Lottin. In Psychologie et morale aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles,
6:2792. Gembloux: J. Duculot, 1960.
Aristotle. Ethica Nicomachea. Translated by Robert Grosseteste.
Edited by René-Antoine Gauthier. In Aristoteles Latinus, vol. 26/3.
Leiden: Brill, 1972.
Hugh of St. Victor. De quinque septenis. In H. de Saint-Victor. Six
opuscules spirituels. Edited by R. Baron, 10018. SC 155. Paris:
Peter Lombard. Magistri Petri Lombardi Parisiensis episcopi
Sententiae in IV libris distinctae. 2 vols. 3^rd ed. Spicilegium
Bonaventurianum, 45. Grottaferrata: Collegium S. Bonaventurae,
Thomas Aquinas. Summa theologiae. 9 vols. In Sancti Thomae
Aquinatis doctoris angelici opera omnia iussu impensaque Leonis XIII
P. M. edita, vols. 412. Rome: Typographia Polyglotta S. C. de
Propaganda Fide, 18881906.
d. Church and Pastoralia
Alexander Carpenter. Destructorium viciorum. Cologne, 1485; Paris,
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Parson's Tale." In The Riverside Chaucer.
Edited by L. D. Benson et al., 288328. 3rd ed. New York: Houghton
Gerson, Jean. "Le profit de savoir quel est péché mortel et véniel."
In Jean Gerson. uvres complètes. Edited by Palémon Glorieux,
7/1:37089. Paris: Desclée, 1966.
Hugh Ripelin of Strasbourg. Compendium theologicae veritatis. In
Albertus Magnus, Opera omnia, edited by S. C. A. Borgnet, 34:1-261.
Paris: Vives, 1899.
Lavynham, Richard. A Litil Tretys on the Seven Deadly Sins. Edited
by J. P. W. M. van Zutphen. Rome: Institutum Carmelitanum, 1956.
Mannyng, Robert. Handlyng Synne. Edited by F. J. Furnivall. EETS
os, 119. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1901.
Peraldus, William. Summa virtutum ac vitiorum Guilhelmi Paraldi
Episcopi Lugdunensis de ordine predicatorum. Paris: Johannes Petit,
Johannes Frellon, Franciscus Regnault, 1512.
Robert of Flamborough. Liber poenitentialis. Edited by J. J. Francis
Firth. Studies and Texts, 18. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of
Mediaeval Studies, 1971.
Ps.-Vincent of Beauvais. Speculum morale. In Vincentii Burgundi
Speculum quadruplex sive speculum maius, vol. 3. Douai: Ex officina
Typographica Baltazaris Belleri, 1624. Reprint, Graz: Akademische
Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1964.
Berthold of Regensburg. Berthold von Regensburg: Vollständige Ausgabe
seiner Predigten. Edited by Franz Pfeiffer and Joseph Strobl. 2
vols. Vienna: W. Braumueller, 1862-80. Reprint, Berlin: de Gruyter,
Book for a Simple and Devout Woman: A Late Middle English Adaptation
of Peraldus's "Summa de vitiis et virtutibus" and Friar Laurent's
"Somme le Roi." Edited by F. N. M. Diekstra. Mediaevalia Groningana,
24. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998.
Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. Edited and trans. by John D.
Sinclair. 3 vols. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 19391946.
The Latin and German "Etymachia": Textual History, Edition,
Commentary. Edited by Nigel Harris. MTU 102. Munich: Beck, 1994.
Gower, John. Confessio Amantis. In The English Works of John Gower,
edited by G. C. Macaulay. 2 vols. EETS es, 81-82. London: Kegan
Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1900-1.
Notre-Dame Cathedral. Paris.
Peter the Chanter. Verbum abbreviatum. PL 205:21-528A.
Tapestry of the Vices and Virtues. Regensburg, Historisches Museum.
II. Secondary Works
a. General Works on the Vices
Bloomfield, Morton W. The Seven Deadly Sins: An Introduction to the
History of a Religious Concept, with Special Reference to Medieval
English Literature. [East Lansing, MI:] Michigan State Univ. Press,
1952. Reprint, 1967.
Bossy, John. "Moral Arithmatic: Seven Sins into Ten Commandments."
In Conscience and Casuistry in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Edmund
Leites, 21434. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Paris: Editions
de la maison des sciences de l'homme, 1988.
Boyde, Patrick. Human Vices and Human Worth in Dante's "Comedy."
Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
Casagrande, Carla, and Silvana Vecchio. "La classificazione dei
peccati tra settenario e decalogo (secoli XIIIXV)." Documenti e studi
sulla tradizione filosofica medievale 5 (1994): 33195.
---. I sette vizi capitali: Storia dei peccati nel Medioevo. Saggi,
832. Turin: Giulio Einaudi, 2000.
---. "Péché." In Dictionnaire Raisonné de l'Occident Médiéval.
Edited by Jacques Le Goff and Jean-Claude Schmitt, 87791. Paris:
Delumeau, Jean. Sin and Fear. The Emergence of a Western Guilt
Culture 13^th 18^th Centuries. Trans. Eric Nicholson. New York: St.
Martin's Press, 1990.
Howard, Donald R. The Three Temptations: Medieval Man in Search of
the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1966.
Huizinga, Johan. The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Translated by Rodney
Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996.
In the Garden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the Middle Ages.
Edited by Richard G. Newhauser. Forthcoming.
Jehl, Rainer. "Die Geschichte des Lasterschemas und seiner
Funktion." Franziskanische Studien 64 (1982): 261359.
Kent, Bonnie. Virtues of the Will: The Transformation of Ethics in
the Late Thirteenth Century. Washington, D. C.: Catholic Univ. of
America Press, 1995.
Kroll, Jerome, and Bernard Bachrach. "Sin and Mental Illness in the
Middle Ages." Psychological Medicine 14 (1984): 507-14.
Lottin, Odon. Psychologie et morale aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles. 6
vols. Gembloux: J. Duculot, 19421960. [Vol. 1. 2^nd ed. 1957].
MacIntyre, Alasdair C. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. 2^nd
ed. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1984.
Markus, Robert A. The End of Ancient Christianity. Cambridge, Eng.
and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.
Newhauser, Richard G. The Treatise on Vices and Virtues in Latin and
the Vernacular. Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, 68.
Turnhout: Brepols, 1993.
---. "Zur Zweideutigkeit in der Moraltheologie: Als Tugenden
verkleidete Laster." In Der Fehltritt: Vergehen und Versehen in der
Vormoderne. Edited by Peter Von Moos, 377402. Norm und Struktur,
15. Cologne, Weimar, and Vienna: Böhlau, 2001.
Solignac, Aimé. "Péchés capitaux." In Dictionnaire de Spiritualité
Tentler, Thomas. Sin and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation.
Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1977.
Tuve, Rosamond. "Notes on the Virtues and Vices." Journal of the
Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 26 (1963): 264303; 27 (1964): 4272.
Utley, Francis L. "The Seven Deadly Sins: Then and Now." Indiana
Social Sciences Quarterly 25 (1975): 3150.
Wenzel, Siegfried. "The Seven Deadly Sins: Some Problems of
Research." Speculum 43 (1968): 122.
Zöckler, Otto. Das Lehrstück von den sieben Hauptsünden: Beiträge zur
Dogmen- und zur Sittengeschichte, in besonders der vorreformatorischen
Zeit. In O. Zöckler. Biblische und kirchenhistorische Studien, 3.
Munich: Beck, 1893.
b. Individual Vices or Systems of Vice
Anger's Past: The Social Uses of an Emotion in the Middle Ages.
Edited by Barbara Rosenwein. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press,
Augst, Rüdiger. Lebensverwirklichung und christlicher Glaube: Acedia:
Religiöse Gleichgültigkeit als Problem der Spiritualität bei Evagrius
Ponticus. Saarbrücker theologische Forschungen, 3. Frankfurt am
Main: Peter Lang, 1990.
Bunge, Gabriel. Akedia: Die geistliche Lehre des Evagrios Pontikos
vom Überdruß. 4^th rev. ed. Würzburg: Der Christliche Osten, 1995.
Cadden, Joan. " 'Nothing Natural Is Shameful': Vestiges of a Debate
about Sex and Science in a Group of Late-Medieval Manuscripts."
Speculum 76 (2001): 66-89.
Casagrande, Carla, and Silvana Vecchio. I peccati della lingua:
disciplina ed etica della parola nella cultura medievale. Rome:
Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1987.
Karras, Ruth Mazo. "Two Models, Two Standards: Moral Teaching and
Sexual Mores." In Bodies and Disciplines: Intersections of Literature
and History in Fifteenth-Century England, edited by Barbara A.
Hanawalt and David Wallace, 123-38. Medieval Cultures, 9.
Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Little, Lester K. "Pride Goes before Avarice: Social Change and the
Vices in Latin Christendom." The American Historical Review 76
Markus, Robert A. "De civitate Dei: Pride and the Common Good."
Collectanea Augustiniana 1 (1990): 245-59.
Murray, Alexander. Reason and Society in the Middle Ages. Oxford:
Newhauser, Richard G. "From Treatise to Sermon: Johannes Herolt on
the novem peccata aliena." In De ore domini: Preacher and Word in the
Middle Ages. Edited by T. L. Amos et al., 185209. Studies in Medieval
Culture, 27. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Press, 1989.
---. The Early History of Greed: The Sin of Avarice in Early Medieval
Thought and Literature. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature,
41. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
Payer, Pierre. The Bridling of Desire: Views of Sex in the Later
Middle Ages. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1993.
Nani, T. Suarez. "Du goût et de la gourmandise selon Thomas
d'Aquin." In I cinque sensi / The Five Senses. Micrologus, 10.
Florence: Edizioni del Galluzzo, SISMEL, 2002. In press.
Theunissen, Michael. Vorentwürfe der Moderne: Antike Melancholie und
die Acedia des Mittelalters. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1996.
Vincent-Cassy, Mireille. "L'Envie en France au Moyen Age." Annales
E.S.C. 35 (1980): 253-71.
---. "Quand les femmes deviennent paresseuses." In Femmes:
Mariages-Lignages, XIIe-XIVe siècles: Mélanges offerts à Georges Duby,
431-47. Bibliothèque du Moyen Age, 1. Bruxelles: De Boeck
Wenzel, Siegfried. The Sin of Sloth: Acedia in Medieval Thought and
Literature. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1967.
---. "The Three Enemies of Man." Mediaeval Studies 29 (1967): 47-66.
c. The Vices in Art
Baumann, Priscilla. "The Deadliest Sin: Warnings Against Avarice and
Usury on Romanesque Capitals in Auvergne." Church History 59 (1990):
Blöcker, Susanne. Studien zur Ikonographie der Sieben Todsünden in
der niederländischen und deutschen Malerei und Graphik von 14501560.
Bonner Studien zur Kunstgeschichte, 8. Münster and Hamburg: LIT,
Katzenellenbogen, Adolf. Allegories of the Virtues and Vices in
Mediaeval Art from Early Christian Times to the Thirteenth Century.
Translated by Alan J. P. Crick. London: The Warburg Institute, 1939.
Reprint, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1989.
Norman, Joanne S. Metamorphoses of an Allegory: The Iconography of
the Psychomachia in Medieval Art. American University Studies, series
IX: History, 29. New York: Lang, 1988.
O'Reilly, Jennifer. Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and
Vices in the Middle Ages. New York, London: Garland Publishing, Inc.,
Schweitzer, Franz-Josef. Tugend und Laster in illustrierten
didaktischen Dichtungen des späten Mittelalters: Studien zu Hans
Vintlers "Blumen der Tugend" und zu "Des Teufels Netz."
Germanistische Texte und Studien, 41. Hildesheim: Olms, 1993.
Virtue and Vice: The Personifications in the Index of Christian Art.
Edited by Colum Hourihane. Princeton: Index of Christian Art, 2000.
Voelkle, William M. "Morgan Manuscript M.1001: The Seven Deadly Sins
and the Seven Evil Ones." In Monsters and Demons in the Ancient and
Medieval Worlds: Papers Presented in Honor of Edith Porada, edited by
Ann E. Farkas et al., 101-14. Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1987.
d. Origins and the Vices
Brakke, David. "The Making of Monastic Demonology: Three Ascetic
Teachers on Withdrawal and Resistance." Church History 70 (2001):
Goehring, James E. Ascetics, Society, and the Desert: Studies in
Early Egyptian Monasticism. Studies in Antiquity and Christianity.
The Roots of Egyptian Christianity, . Harrisburg, PA: Trinity
Press International, 1999.
Nussbaum, Martha C. The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in
Hellenistic Ethics. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1994.
O'Laughlin, Michael. "The Anthropology of Evagrius Ponticus and Its
Sources." In Origen of Alexandria: His World and His Legacy, edited
by Charles Kannengiesser and William L. Petersen, 357-73. Notre Dame,
IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1988.
Röhser, Günter. Metaphorik und Personifikation der Sünde: Antike
Sündenvorstellungen und paulinische Hamartia. Sorabji, Richard.
Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian
Temptation. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000.
Stewart, Columba. Cassian the Monk. New York and Oxford: Oxford
Univ. Press, 1998.
Straw, Carole. Gregory the Great: Perfection in Imperfection.
Transformation of the Classical Heritage, 14. Berkeley, Los Angeles,
and London: Univ. of California Press, 1988.
Wibbing, Siegfried. Die Tugend- und Lasterkataloge im Neuen
Testament. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche
Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, 25. Berlin: Töpelmann,
e. Pastoralia and the Vices
Handling Sin: Confession in the Middle Ages. Edited by Peter Biller
and A. J. Minnis. York: York Medieval Press, 1998.
Michaud-Quantin, Pierre. Sommes de casuistique et manuels de
confession au Moyen Age (XIIe-XIVe siècles). Analecta mediaevalia
Namurcensia, 13. Louvain, Lille, and Montreal: Nauwelaerts, 1962.
Owst, Gerald R. Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England. 2^nd rev.
ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1961.
---. Preaching in Medieval England: An Introduction to Sermon
Manuscripts of the Period c. 1350-1450. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge
Univ. Press, 1926. Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell, 1965.
Spencer, H. Leith. English Preaching in the Late Middle Ages.
Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.
9. mailto:rnewhaus at trinity.edu
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