[Paleopsych] Richard Newhauser's Course Outline for The Seven Deadly Sins as Cultural Constructions in the Middle Ages

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Richard Newhauser's Course Outline for The Seven Deadly Sins as Cultural 
Constructions in the Middle Ages

                           NEH Summer Seminar 2004

               The Seven Deadly Sins as Cultural Constructions
                              in the Middle Ages



    There has been a great deal of attention devoted to the concepts of
    The Seven Deadly Sins recently in popular forms of discourse, from the
    new series of cultural studies at Oxford University Press and the
    outstanding articles on the sins by major novelists and poets
    published in The New York Times Book Review in 1993 to an hour-long
    special broadcast the same year on MTV and the feature-length film
    Seven of 1995.  From elite culture to popular culture, in other words,
    the seven deadly sins have retained their interest as cultural
    constructions.  Gluttony - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest,
    Kegyesrendi Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) It is time to revisit them in
    research on the period of their greatest dissemination and utility,
    the Middle Ages.  The most recent research on this topic, in fact, has
    allowed these seven concepts to emerge from a narrowly theological
    inquiry and to be seen, individually and as a series, in the same
    light as other historically defined objects of study central to the
    Humanistic endeavor.  By focusing on the major cultural contexts in
    which the sins were defined, the seminar will seek to deepen the
    participants' appreciation for the ways in which the conception of
    morality in the Middle Ages was a response to varying cultural
    factors, and will make the study of the sins available for inclusion
    in the participants' regular college instruction.

    The seminar has been designed so as to provide a location in which
    scholars in the Humanities and the Social Sciences can discuss the
    ways in which the culture of the Middle Ages constructed morality.
    The practical goals of the summer will be for me to assist the
    participants in their research project, and to make available to the
    participants in the seminar an exciting group of guest lecturers.  The
    results of the seminar will, I hope, be disseminated in special
    sessions at the annual Medieval Congress in Kalamazoo and, possibly,
    in a volume of essays that I will edit.

    I am seeking to recruit participants drawn from a wide variety of
    fields:  college teachers who specialize in anthropology, history, and
    the study of literature, as well as specialists in art history,
    sociology, and those with a primary focus on theology and ethics.
    From two years of residence at institutes for advanced study in
    America and Britain, I am aware that interaction among disciplines is
    an essential ingredient in achieving a reinvigorated educational
    environment that will bring a new vision to the relationship between
    the sins and the niches of culture that were of vital importance in
    the construction of these moral categories.  The participants will be
    expected to have a basic knowledge and understanding of medieval
    culture and history in its broad outlines, not limited to their own
    fields of specialized research.  It will be helpful, although not a
    prerequisite, if participants have a working knowledge of French and
    German, in particular, or other modern European languages in which the
    scholarship on the sins is regularly published.  It will be especially
    useful if they can read Medieval Latin.  Nevertheless, the majority of
    the medieval texts used in the seminar will be made available to the
    seminar in their original languages with an accompanying English

Intellectual Rationale

    NEH support for the study of the seven deadly sins at American
    universities began in 1978 with an NEH Summer Seminar for College and
    University Teachers at the University of Pennsylvania, directed by
    Prof. Siegfried Wenzel.  The present seminar seeks to follow this
    educational innovation and reinvigorate its content, in the current
    climate of ethical discourse in our culture, by taking maximum
    advantage of the unique manuscript, research, and human resources
    available at the University of Cambridge, England, and its institute
    for advanced study, Clare Hall.

    The Study of the Seven Deadly Sins:  From Dogma to Cultural Constructs

    The seven deadly sins (pride, envy, wrath, avarice, sloth, gluttony,
    lust in their most frequent order) are sometimes thought of as
    inflexible categories of medieval dogma or, when they are found in
    examples of contemporary popular culture (such as the feature-length
    film Seven), as signifiers for something of an arcane perversion, a
    vehicle for an evil which is both mysterious and ancient.  Such a
    view, of course, does not address the longevity of the idea of these
    seven constructs as comprehending the basic categories of evil in
    western culture.  The very fact that even as this list of seven sins
    was being replaced by psychological, utilitarian, and other models of
    behavioral analysis it still could be adopted from Catholic to
    Protestant use during the Reformation, and further adopted for secular
    utilization both before and after that point, makes the seven sins a
    worthy object of cultural inquiry in the Humanities.  Current research
    in the intellectual history of moral thought in the Middle Ages has
    demonstrated, moreover, how nuanced and differentiated the constructs
    actually were that came to be known as the seven deadly sins, how much
    their definition depended on a complex interaction with the cultural
    environments in which they were enumerated.  The most recent research
    on this topic, in other words, has allowed these seven concepts to
    emerge from a narrowly theological inquiry and to be seen,
    individually and as a series, in the same light as other historically
    defined objects of study central to the Humanistic endeavor.  In this
    way, current research does not define the categories of the sins
    merely as theological entities, but rather as differentiated
    articulations of what can be called discrete forms of an interrupted
    actualization of socially accepted forms of desire.  Parallel to this
    definition, the virtues can be understood as ideals of the
    socialization of desire.

    In the 19^th and earlier 20^th century, and primarily in German
    scholarship, the sins were studied in three main contexts:  First,
    they were seen as part of the history of Catholic dogma on matters of
    moral theology, something which appears clearly in the sub-title of
    the major work on the sins and dogma in this period, the monograph by
    Otto Zöckler.  Second, the origins of the sins became part of the
    historical study of monastic spirituality in Egypt, where established
    lists of evil thoughts (later reformulated as the sins) first
    appeared.  The focus here was on the debt this aspect of Egyptian
    monasticism owed to both Hellenism and Early Christian literature.
    Envy - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest, Kegyesrendi
    Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) Stefan Schiwietz's three-volume Das
    morgenländische Mönchtum, published between 1904 and 1938, is typical
    of endeavors in this second context, as is the monograph by Siegfried
    Wibbing.  Third, the iconography of vices and virtues formed the
    subject of a number of studies of medieval art, in particular in the
    tradition of Prudentius's Psychomachia, such as one can find in Adolf
    Katzenellenbogen's classic monograph.  The common factor in these
    studies is a tendency to examine their subject from structural and
    historical perspectives in which the content of the sins is imagined
    to be relatively stable.

    Much of this earlier research was summarized and extended into the
    area of literary scholarship in 1952 in the monumental monograph by
    Morton Bloomfield, which not only was the first major American study
    of the sins, but also contributed a far more comprehensive view of the
    place of the sins in medieval culture that was also sensitive to some
    of the major changes in the composition of the lists of sins in
    response to varying cultural factors.  Bloomfield's work proved highly
    influential in the educational context of American universities, in
    particular, but it also served as the starting point for the ongoing
    interest among subsequent European medievalists in this aspect of
    medieval moral thought.  The publication in 1967 of Siegfried Wenzel's
    study of sloth and his fundamental article in Speculum the next year
    detailing problems in the history of the sins not addressed by
    Bloomfield's work set the agenda for much historiographical work to
    come.  As a result, factors such as the place of the virtues in the
    comprehension of moral thought in the Middle Ages, the influence of
    Aristotle, and the genesis of rationales for the sins in Scholastic
    thought were the focus of some later work, such as the recent studies
    by Carla Casagrande and Silvana Vecchio.  At the same time, the study
    of individual sins has been, and continues to be, advanced in work by
    Lester Little, Alexander Murray, or more recently Richard Newhauser on
    avarice; Mireille Vincent-Cassy on envy and sloth; and Pierre Payer or
    Ruth Karras on lust.

    Yet much scholarship of the last twenty years has also moved beyond an
    agenda in which the seven deadly sins are seen to function almost
    hegemonically in the environment of pastoral theology.  John Bossy's
    important essay in 1988 articulated ways in which the seven sins were
    seen by late-medieval culture to be inadequate, a topic which was in
    some regards anticipated by Bloomfield's work, but not fully realized
    there.  Likewise, analyses of other enumerations of morality in the
    Middle Ages, like Casagrande and Vecchio on the sins of the tongue, or
    Newhauser on the nine accessory sins, have called attention to the way
    in which cultural exigencies (such as the oral nature of preaching and
    confession) elicited a response that gives evidence of the flexibility
    of medieval moral thought.  But recent scholarship has also begun to
    address topics and use methodologies that open the question of the
    cultural use of the sins to a more diverse analysis and call into
    question some of the assumptions of earlier scholarship.  Barbara
    Rosenwein et al. on anger, for example, is deeply invested in the
    current debate on the use and construction of the emotions in
    historical research, Michael Theunissen has questioned the supposed
    historical break between the melancholy articulated in antique texts,
    sloth in the Middle Ages, and modernity's representation of
    depression.  Other approaches to the delineation of the moral
    categories of the sins have adopted methods of psychological research
    (Patrick Boyde), or the findings of anthropology (Newhauser), or a
    gender studies perspective (Karras) to yield new insight into the ways
    in which cultures fill the categories of moral analysis with an
    ever-changing content.

    With so much recent attention focused on the sins, it seems that the
    time is right to revisit the content of a past NEH Summer Seminar with
    a new group of interested and engaged college teachers in order to
    reinvigorate the educational potential of the study of the seven
    deadly sins at American universities.

    The Cultural Contexts of the Seven Deadly Sins

    In order to allow the participants to clearly relate the presentation
    of the sins to a specific context, it is proposed here that the
    seminar focus on the locations of medieval moral thought and their
    interaction with the contents of the presentations themselves.  It is
    in this way that one can speak of the sins as cultural constructions.
    The following narrative will lay the foundation for the content and
    implementation of the project.

    The longevity and centrality of the seven sins testifies to the
    authoritativeness and versatility of what began as an element of
    monastic education.  Their origin is found in the list of eight "evil
    thoughts" (gluttony, lust, avarice, wrath, sadness, sloth, vainglory,
    pride) that developed in the hermit communities of northern Egypt.
    These eight logismoi may have been common in the oral teaching of the
    Egyptian monks, Avarice - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest,
    Kegyesrendi Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) but in written form they are
    found earliest in the Greek works of Evagrius Ponticus (c. 345399).
    In the octad, Evagrius systematized the theory of demonic intrusions
    on the contemplative work of the anchorite so that the monk would be
    better armed to defeat the demons who used temptations to hinder his
    attainment of apatheia ("passionlessness").  John Cassian (c.
    360433/35) learned of the octad from Evagrius and made the order of
    logismoi in Evagrius's De octo spiritibus malitiae central to his
    Latin works written for cenobitic monasteries in Marseilles.  Here,
    the "evil thoughts" were now termed vitia, each with a list of
    sub-sins to which it gives rise.  Cassian emphasized the concatenation
    of the first six sins, a sequential relationship in which an excess of
    one vice becomes the foundation for the subsequent one.  Vainglory and
    pride become dangerous precisely when the previous six have been
    extirpated.  The ascetic orientation of these early monastic octads,
    written for communities of holy men, can be seen in the way control of
    bodily desires lays the foundation for the defeat of more spiritual
    temptations.  Pope Gregory I (c. 540604) synthesized Cassian's
    monastic thought with Augustine's view of sin as reflective of the
    will.  Using most of the octad's components, Gregory reversed the
    order of sins:  what he explicitly called two "carnal sins" come after
    five spiritual ones, with pride serving as the root of all seven
    "principal vices":  vainglory, envy, wrath, sadness, avarice,
    gluttony, lust (Moralia in Iob, 31.45.8790).  When pride itself was
    included in the list, the result could be understood as a variant of a
    sin octad, but in either case, Gregory considered these sins the
    origins of all sinfulness.  The excesses of the ego depicted in the
    heptad's spiritual sins emphasize the importance of humility for
    Gregory as the central virtue of active obedience to authority within
    the community in moral, monastic, and secular political terms.  Pride
    was most commonly (though not exclusively) considered the foundation
    of sinfulness in the early Middle Ages.  Gregory asserts that the
    determination of intention in any act necessitates close examination
    of motives that may reveal a gap between the appearance of virtue and
    its origin in the impulses of vice.  He presupposes, thus, a certain
    amount of moral ambiguity in any act.

    The heptad reflects an ideal of hierocratic ideology and social
    hierarchy.  In the early Middle Ages many other presentations of vices
    and virtues were addressed to the needs of the nobility:  Martin of
    Braga composed the very popular Formula vitae honestae (57079), a
    treatise on the cardinal virtues, for the moral instruction of the
    Suevic King Miro and his court.  Typical of the aristocrats directly
    involved in the ethical renewal of the Carolingian reforms is Wido,
    Margrave of the Marca Britanniae, to whom Alcuin addressed his
    influential Liber de virtutibus et vitiis (c. 800).  The reformers
    emphasized ethica, the study of virtue leading to correct living,
    along with the liberal arts and logic as the disciplines of
    philosophy:  Alcuin frames his treatise with systems of virtue (at the
    beginning, theological; at the end, cardinal virtues).  His
    compilation of scriptural and patristic texts as governing authorities
    served the further end of aiding uniformity in the Carolingian church,
    which allies his and other Carolingian and post-Carolingian treatises
    on moral theology with the genre of the florilegium.

    The internalization of concepts of the individual and spirituality in
    the late eleventh and twelfth centuries anchored moral theology in
    psychological processes.  Hugh of St. Victor (10961141) reinterpreted
    concatenation as a description of developing sinfulness which began
    with the common classification of sin according to the subject it is
    directed against:  pride removes the sinner from God, envy from his
    neighbor, wrath from himself.  The last four sins marked stages in the
    sinner's descent into slavery to sin (De quinque septenis).  The
    intended audience of this view of the sins now includes new classes of
    an urban population.  The renewal of interest in Augustinian theology
    in the 12^th century marks a tendency to see caritas as the most
    important virtue instead of Gregory the Great's focus on humility.
    The Ethics of Peter Abelard (1079-1142) for the first time
    systematically analyzed the importance of intention and conscience,
    i.e., the inner disposition of each human being, in the determination
    of what constitutes vice and virtue.  The interconnection between
    monastic theology and the developing "theology of the schools"
    produced many other presentations using the symmetry of vices and
    virtues (or related qualities, especially the gifts of the Holy
    Spirit).  The Liber de fructu carnis et spiritus by Conrad of Hirsau
    (c. 1070c. 1150) treats the Gregorian heptad and an opposed list
    (theological plus cardinal virtues) and was influential in the
    development of illuminations of matching trees of vices and virtues;
    Alan of Lille's De virtutibus et de vitiis et de donis spiritus sancti
    (c. 117080) examines the gifts of the Holy Spirit, defines the sins
    and their progeny, and makes the theological virtues a category of one
    of the cardinal virtues; the façade of Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris
    (early 13^th cent.) arranges personifications of virtues with roundels
    of exemplified sins in a way that summarizes types of representation
    of both.  With the shift to a growing profit economy in the eleventh
    and twelfth centuries, treatments of avarice and its sub-sins (usury,
    illicit merchant practices, etc.) began to vie with pride more
    frequently in discussions of which sin is the root of all others.

    Early Scholastic literature began to treat sin and virtue within a
    wider approach to systematic theology, though attempts to adduce a
    theoretical rationale for a system of sins (generally as aberrations
    of the human will) produced any number of classifications of the
    sins:  Peter Lombard's Sentences (c. 1150), the standard textbook for
    Scholastic education in theology, had suggested four:  Augustine's
    distinction of sins by their origin in cupidity or fear; Jerome's
    classification of sins of thought, word, or deed; the distinction
    according to the subject sin is directed against; and the Gregorian
    heptad (Sent., 2.3044).  The seven sins could not easily be justified
    as the most important or the most serious sins.  The phenomenology of
    sin and virtue became central to theology as a discipline, but this
    opened up new avenues of classification.   The use of Aristotle's
    Nichomachean Ethics reinforced academic moral theology's move beyond
    hamartiology (and an interest in only seven chief sins) to instead
    become a theory of virtue, devoted to questions touching the divisions
    of the virtues (intellectual, moral, theological), their causes, and
    their interconnection.

    The importance of the sacrament of penance influenced frequent
    Scholastic attempts to distinguish between explicit violations of
    God's law (deadly sins) and acts that do not directly breach this law
    (venial sins).  The attempts to define venial sin also included the
    idea of a diminution of any inherent human sinfulness due in part to
    the imperfect nature of human intention or human knowledge, as one can
    see, for example, in "Le profit de savoir quel est péché mortel et
    véniel" and other works by Jean Gerson (d. 1429).  The seven sins no
    longer suffice as a schematic organization of the multitude of errors
    that Gerson discusses, which in one treatise amount to 58 different
    kinds of deception by the devil (i.e., vices disguised as virtues).
    With an endless choice of feigned virtues that self-examination will
    expose as sins, Gersons sinner has arrived at what has been described
    as a paralysis of the soul typical of a late-medieval guilt culture.
    An interest in the Jewish scriptures that had begun in the twelfth
    century, uneasiness with the lack of a biblical foundation for the
    capital vices, and a concern to bind morality into a juridical system
    resulted in the emergence of the Ten Commandments, especially among
    Franciscan theologians beginning with Duns Scotus, as the moral system
    that would be universally taught after the sixteenth century.

    In pastoral theology, art, and literature, the capital vice tradition
    remained dominant through the sixteenth century.  The reforming
    efforts of the Church to control the content of catechesis by
    reinstructing congregations at all social levels in matters of the
    faith culminated in canon 21 of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
    Wrath - from Conflictus 'In Campo Mundi' (Budapest, Kegyesrendi
    Központi Könyvtár MS CX 2) that legislated confession for all
    Christians at least once a year.  Many regional councils demanded that
    clergy preach on vices and virtues, as well.  The examination of the
    conscience envisioned here included material specific to women and all
    classes of society.  The question of how to organize the sins to be
    confessed and preached was answered very early by drawing on the
    capital vices, which now became the seven deadly sins.  Robert of
    Flamborough's early thirteenth-century Liber poenitentialis
    recommended the heptad precisely because the genetic relationship of
    the vices (and their progeny) facilitated confession.  Eventually, the
    number of progeny was vastly expanded, but the basic classification of
    seven chief sins and their chief remedies remained, though often in
    tandem with other catechetical systems.  The outpouring of penitential
    and homiletic texts treating vice and virtue, initially addressed to
    the clergy, was the work especially of the Dominicans and Franciscans
    (in particular in the cities), and it influenced the development of
    vernacular works on morality, now addressed to the urban laity.
    William Peraldus's widely transmitted Summa virtutum ac vitiorum
    (12361250), which played a seminal role in the development of the sins
    of the tongue, influenced important vernacular treatments of the vices
    and virtues such as Friar Laurent of Bois' Somme le roi (1280) and
    (indirectly) Chaucer's "Parson's Tale" (late 14^th century).  The
    recognition of the cognitive value of images for educating pious
    Christians drew in the late Middle Ages on the intersection between
    pastoral literature, the natural-philosophical understanding of
    animals, and traditional moral iconography to produce emblematic
    presentations of the vices and virtues in many media and for many
    functions, from supporting the Benedictine reform to promoting civic
    ethics (as in the Regensburg tapestry of the vices and virtues, c.
    1400).  The confluence of pastoral literature and a high degree of
    emblematic iconography also characterizes late-medieval and
    Renaissance literary treatments of the vices and virtues, from Dante's
    (12651321) Divine Comedy to morality plays.

Content and Implementation of the Project

    The weekly work of the seminar will generally be conducted in meetings
    at Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, from 9:30 a.m. to noon, on
    Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday.  Excursions have also been planned to
    St. Mary's Church, Hardwick (near Cambridge), and to important
    manuscript collections in Cambridge itself:  St. John's College, the
    University Library, and the Fitzwilliam Museum.
      In addition to attending the sessions of the seminar, the
    participants will be able to use the facilities of the Cambridge
    University Library to work on their research project and they will be
    able to consult me about their work during regularly scheduled
    individual conferences.  On part of Wednesday and on Thursday of the
    last week of the seminar the participants will give a brief
    presentation of the initial results of their research.

    During each week, the work of the seminar will focus on a series of
    readings that grew out of a particularly important cultural location
    in the history of the sins.  Sections of these texts, with English
    translations wherever possible, will be distributed to the
    participants at the opening of the seminar.  During each week, the
    work of the seminar will emphasize one or more of the sins, not to the
    exclusion of others, but so as to concentrate the analysis of the
    connection between the specific context for that week and the content
    of the sin or sins.  In this way, the flexibility of the category of
    moral thought will emerge as it adjusts to changes in cultural

    Week One:  Desert and Monastery (July 12-15).  Visiting faculty:
    Prof. Ian Goodyer

    The opening session of the seminar on Monday will be taken up with
    individual meetings between me and each participant in order to
    discuss the independent project s/he will work on for the summer and
    the anticipated outcomes.  Each participant will schedule at least one
    more individual conference with me during the third week of the

    The first formal session on Wednesday will briefly characterize the
    kinds of interactions between contexts and content that the seminar
    will deal with in greater detail for the next weeks.  For the early
    monks, sloth and tristitia (sadness) were particularly characteristic
    sins, being defined in ways that made them especially responsive to
    the situation of monks engaged in the intensive work of meditation.
    These sins, then, will be the focus of the first week, illustrated by
    treatises by Evagrius Ponticus (De malignis cogitationibus, Praktikos,
    etc.) and John Cassian (Collationes patrum and De institutis
    coenobiorum), in particular, with Gregory the Great (Morals on Job)
    serving as a transition to the work of the next week and Conrad of
    Hirsau (Liber de fructu carnis et spiritus) providing a view of some
    of the continuity of monastic thought.  We will use Siegfried Wenzel,
    The Sin of Sloth: Acedia in Medieval Thought and Literature (Chapel
    Hill, NC, 1967), and more recent work by Rüdiger Augst and Gabriel
    Bunge to understand sloth as a monastic vice.  With the visit of
    Professor Ian Goodyer during the first week, we will also begin to
    develop a psychological model for the analysis of these two sins, in
    particular, based on the psychiatric analysis of adolescent
    depression, a field in which Professor Goodyer is an internationally
    renowned expert.  His articles on this subject have appeared in such
    publications as the Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Psychological
    Medicine, and the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.[1]

    Week Two:  Court (July 19-22).  Visiting faculty:  Prof. David Ganz

    The focus of the seminar during the second week will be the medieval
    court as a factor in defining aristocratic morality.  In pride,
    medieval moral thought identified a sin considered particularly
    characteristic of noblemen and represented pictorially in outlandish
    clothing.  Wrath, however, was also frequently attributed to the
    nobility, though as we will see by reading the works of Prudentius
    (Psychomachia), Martin of Braga (Formula vitae honestae, De ira, and
    De superbia), and Alcuin (Liber de virtutibus et vitiis), the
    potential ambiguity of moral designations can also be seen here.
    Wrath, in fact, was a defining characteristic of masculinity, as
    Richard Barton has shown in Anger's Past: The Social Uses of an
    Emotion in the Middle Ages, ed. Barbara Rosenwein (Ithaca and London,
    1998), and as much praised for its God-like qualities as condemned for
    its irrationality.  The dilemma here is obvious, for if overweening
    ego was to be condemned as pride, God-like wrath could be praised only
    with difficulty.  The seminar will explore the ways in which the
    tensions here respond to tensions in the court, especially in the
    Carolingian period.  David Ganz, Professor of Latin Paleography,
    Department of English and Classics, King's College, University of
    London, will open the discussion of the iconography of the vices by
    presenting the participants with some important manuscripts at the
    Fitzwilliam Museum.   Professor Ganz's work on early-medieval
    libraries and the intellectual history of the Carolingian period is
    well known; his work has appeared in the New Cambridge Medieval
    History and in a wide series of journals and collections of essays.

    Week Three:  University (July 26-29):  Visiting faculty:  Dr. István
    Bejczy, Dr. Paul Binski

    With the growth of the universities one can note a tendency to
    refashion moral thought as a theology of virtue rather than an
    analysis of sin, as can be observed fully formed in the sections of
    Aquinas's Summa theologiae the seminar will read in the third week.
    Dr. István Bejczy will emphasize this fact in his lecture.  Dr.
    Bejczy's expertise in 12^th-century moral theology that stems from his
    current project directing six research fellows in the production of a
    multi-volume history of the cardinal virtues will benefit the
    participants in the seminar in the examination of the origins of
    academic theology and the ways in which academic discourse shaped the
    connection between vices and virtues.  Partially as a pedagogic
    device, and partially as a presentation of mental acuity, parallel
    lists of sins and their virtuous opponents were drawn up by authors
    like Hugh of St. Victor (De quinque septenis) and Alan of Lille (De
    virtutibus et de vitiis et de donis spiritus sancti).  At the same
    time, the importance of intention central to Peter Abelard's work
    (especially his Ethics) raises the question that anthropologists ask
    about the determination of another person's inner state, namely what
    right is invoked to allow the interpreter to say s/he has seen the
    truth of that inner state (we will use an English translation of my
    essay Zur Zweideutigkeit in der Moraltheologie. Als Tugenden
    verkleidete Laster, in P. von Moos, ed., Der Fehltritt. Vergehen und
    Versehen in der Vormoderne [Köln, Weimar, Wien, 2001], pp. 377-402).
    Finally, the interest in demonology witnessed in the work of Peter
    Lombard, for example, will be seen to influence the conception of
    envy.  Dr. Paul Binski, Reader in the History of Medieval Art,
    University of Cambridge, will provide a transition to 13th-century
    English art and the era of reform by focusing on the iconography of
    the sculptures of the Salisbury chapter house, the king's chamber at
    Westminster, the Apocalypses, and such pastoral texts as the Somme le
    Roi.  Dr. Binski's studies of Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets:
    Kingship and the Representation of Power 1200-1400 (Yale Univ. Press,
    1995) and the forthcoming Art and Authority in the Age of Becket (Yale
    Univ. Press, 2004) have established him as a leading scholar of the
    history of medieval English art.[3] (bibliobraphy)

    Week Four:  Church and Pastoralia (August 2-5):  Visiting faculty:
    Dr. Richard Beadle, Dr. Sylvia Huot

    Corporeal sins had long been separated from sins considered
    "spiritual" in moral thought, but the material for the fourth week's
    work will allow us to examine the class distinctions implicated in
    some of the ways the sins of the flesh were presented to penitents,
    especially in the popular work of William Peraldus (Summa de vitiis et
    virtutbus) and the vernacular treatises in English and French to be
    read for this week (Geoffrey Chaucer, "The Parson's Tale"; Jean
    Gerson, "Le profit de savoir quel est péché mortel et véniel").  Both
    lords and peasants drank to excess and had erotic experiences, but
    they did not get drunk or have intercourse in the same way.  The kinds
    of wine the aristocracy drank were different from what the commoners
    could afford; the kind of debauchery considered typical of the
    nobility was also different from peasant indiscretions.  We will be
    visited this week by Dr. Richard Beadle, Reader in English Literature
    and an internationally known expert on English manuscripts of the
    later Middle Ages, whose edition of the York Mystery Plays is an
    essential tool for teaching early English drama, and Dr. Sylvia Huot,
    Reader in Medieval French Literature, whose work on the manuscripts
    and interpretation of the Romance of the Rose will guide us in
    understanding this important Old French treatment of courtly and moral
    values.  Both guest lecturers will help the seminar focus on the
    question of whose interests were served by insisting on class
    distinctions in moral analysis.  Both speakers will also continue with
    the presentation of manuscripts with vernacular pastoral works in
    Cambridge libraries.  During Dr. Beadle's presentation, we will meet
    in the Old Library at St. John's College, one of the outstanding
    examples of college library architecture in Cambridge.  During Dr.
    Huot's presentation, we will meet in the Fitzwilliam Museum.[4]

    Week Five:  City (August 9-12):  Visiting faculty:  Dr. Nigel Harris

    The final week will return the seminar to the topic of sloth, but now
    conceived in connection with, or at a distance to, economic activity.
    Work, as a profit-making activity in late-medieval cities, will be the
    focus of this week's seminar study, both in its relationship with
    leisure and in its problematic connection with avarice.  Both John
    Gower (Confessio Amantis) and Dante, in particular, are conscious of
    the ways in which the wealth of cities is the result of the
    acquisitive urge.  They can both condemn avarice, but they also evince
    ways of valorizing the search for profit as necessary for the
    functioning of the city and essential to their literary well being.
    Work by the historian John Bossy and the Dante scholar Patrick Boyde
    will help elucidate the ways in which new formulations of sins and
    virtue were beginning to replace the seven deadly sins as schematic
    presentations of morality.  The guest lecture by Dr. Nigel Harris,
    Senior Lecturer in German Studies, University of Birmingham, will
    focus the attention of the seminar on the ways in which urban politics
    in the Austrian/Bavarian area influenced the production of a civic
    ethics that also empties avarice of some of its onerousness.  Dr.
    Harris is the editor of a major text on the vices produced in
    late-medieval Austria, the Etymachia, a battle of personified vices
    and virtues.[5] (bibliobraphy)

Project Faculty and Staff


    A word about myself:  much of my scholarship has been focused on the
    history of the virtues and vices from late antiquity to the early
    modern period.  I am a former Visiting Distinguished Professor in the
    History Department at the Katholieke Universiteit, Nijmegen, Holland;
    a Fellow at the National Humanities Center; the holder of two NEH
    Summer Stipends; the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and a
    Fellowship from the ACLS; and a Life Member of Clare Hall, University
    of Cambridge.  I regularly teach a seminar for undergraduates at
    Trinity University entitled "Sins and Sinners in Western Culture" that
    examines changing understandings of morality in the cultural contexts
    of the Middle Ages and beyond.  My publications have focused in
    particular on the genre of treatments of the vices (The Treatise on
    Vices and Virtues in Latin and the Vernacular, Typologie des sources
    du moyen âge occidental, 68 [1993]), the sin of avarice (The Early
    History of Greed [Cambridge University Press, 2000]) and curiosity as
    a vice (articles in Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift and a number of
    collections of essays).  My complete vita can be found online at

    Visiting Instructors

    The seminar seeks to encourage interaction between the American
    participants and some of the finest European scholars working on
    questions of medieval moral constructs and other experts whose work
    will help to revitalize the study of the sins in the Middle Ages.  A
    number of these scholars have appointments at the University of
    Cambridge, others are only a short distance away.  These visiting
    instructors will provide invaluable lectures for the seminar and join
    the participants for lunch and informal conversation after the

    Dr. Ian Goodyer, MD, Fellow, Wolfson College, University of Cambridge,
    and Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of
    Psychiatry, University of Cambridge.  An internationally renowned
    expert on adolescent depression, Prof. Goodyer's work will aid the
    seminar in constructing a paradigm for the psychological analysis of
    sloth and tristitia (sadness), in particular.

    Dr. David Ganz, Professor of Latin Paleography, Department of English
    and Classics, and Director, Centre for Late Antique and Medieval
    Studies, King's College, University of London.  Prof. Ganz's knowledge
    of Carolingian ethics and important early manuscripts in the
    Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge will give the participants direct
    contact with important primary sources for the study of the sins.

    Dr. Sylvia Huot, Fellow, Pembroke College, University of Cambridge,
    and Reader in Medieval French Literature, University of Cambridge.
    Dr. Huot's expertise in medieval French literature of all types and
    illuminated manuscripts of French origin in Cambridge libraries will
    deepen the participants' understanding of pictorial representations of
    the sins and the breadth of their transmission.

    Dr. Richard Beadle, Fellow, St. John's College, University of
    Cambridge, and Lecturer in English, University of Cambridge.  Dr.
    Beadle is an internationally known expert on English manuscripts of
    the later Middle Ages and will provide the participants with an
    insider's look at the English texts on the sins in the manuscript and
    rare book collection at St. John's College.

    Dr. Paul Binski, Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, and Reader in the
    History of Medieval Art, University of  Cambridge, Department of
    History of Art.  Dr. Binski is one of the leading authorities on
    English art in the high and later Middle Ages.  He will help the
    seminar place groups of virtues, vices, and remedies in the context of
    13th-century English art and the era of reform.

    Dr. Nigel Harris, Senior Lecturer, Department of German Studies,
    University of Birmingham.  Dr. Harris's expertise in the interaction
    between lay and clerical groups in Bavaria and Austria during the
    later Middle Ages will help make comprehensible the ways in which an
    urban environment and urban politics influenced the content and
    presentation of pastoral theology.

    Dr. István Bejczy, Senior Researcher, Department of History,
    Katholieke Universiteit, Nijmegen, Holland.  Dr. Bejczy's expertise in
    12^th-century moral theology that stems from his current project
    directing six research fellows in the production of a multi-volume
    history of the cardinal virtues will benefit the participants in the
    seminar in the examination of the origins of academic theology and the
    ways in which academic discourse shaped the connection between vices
    and virtues.


Selection of Participants

    Selection Process and Criteria

    Applications will be evaluated by a committee composed of Prof.
    Richard G. Newhauser and Prof. Siegfried Wenzel, Emeritus, Department
    of English at the University of Pennsylvania.  The committee will, of
    course, pay close attention to the résumé and the quality of the essay
    which forms part of the application that each potential participant
    submits, but at the same time it will attempt to create a diverse
    group with a wide range of disciplines and interests in order to
    achieve a cross-fertilization of ideas.  The committee will be
    particularly interested in supporting participants who plan to
    incorporate the outcomes of the seminar in their teaching or design
    new courses around the seven deadly sins.

Institutional Context:  Clare Hall, University of Cambridge

    The physical setting of the seminar could hardly be trumped by any
    place more conducive to study and research.  The staff member of the
    seminar at Clare Hall will help register the participants at the
    University Library so they will have reading privileges at the college
    and faculty libraries associated with the University of Cambridge and
    at the University Library itself, one of the finest open-stacks
    libraries in the world (open 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. on weekdays and
    from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on Saturday).  Participants will be
    especially encouraged to become familiar with the University Library's
    special collections rooms for manuscripts and early printed books.
    Both have been newly renovated.

    Clare Hall, the seminar's home, has been an independent college for
    graduate education in the University of Cambridge since it received a
    Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth II in 1984.  It is located on
    spacious grounds along Herschel Road directly behind the University
    Library and a brief walk from the Sidgwick Arts site which houses the
    faculties of Religion, Modern Languages, English, History, and
    Anthropology.  The college has at any one time over 150 graduate
    students from 40 countries and a large number of visiting fellows, so
    that it serves as Britain's most active institute for advanced study.
    It is, thus, an ideal location for a Summer Seminar because of its
    ongoing intellectual environment.  The college also has modest sports
    facilities:  a swimming pool, a gym, and my favorite access to squash
    courts.  If participants are interested in punting on the Cam, the
    college has a punt which can be rented.  More detailed information
    about the college is available at [7]http://www.clarehall.cam.ac.uk/.

    Participants will be able to use the college computer rooms for
    Internet access, printing, word processing, and e-mail (for which they
    will need an Internet accessible e-mail account).  The computer labs
    are fully equipped with PCs and Macs and are generally accessible 24
    hours per day.  We have also been granted the use of the Robert
    Honeycombe Building on the grounds of Clare Hall as a dormitory for
    most of the participants in the seminar.  It consists of 13 student
    rooms:  12 singles and 1 double.  The rooms are not ensuite but have
    good bathroom facilities on each floor.  There is also a kitchen and
    common room with a television.  The communal areas will be cleaned
    daily and the bedrooms will be cleaned and linens changed once a
    week.  These accommodations will cost £500 (currently about $850) per
    room for the five weeks of the seminar.  Two participants will be able
    to share a two-bedroom flat in the Gillian Beer House on the grounds
    of the college.  Here, too, kitchen facilities and a weekly linen
    service are included in the price of £1400 for the flat for the five
    weeks of the seminar (£700 per person [currently about $1,190]).
    Neither of these accommodations is suitable for families.  While there
    is an organization in Cambridge that can locate accommodations for
    families in the city, these will be considerably more expensive than
    what Clare Hall has offered us for individual participants.  The
    college provides meals on all weekdays at the following costs:  lunch
    £9.50; dinner £9.50; Wednesday dinner £15.00 (served with wine).  I
    will be making arrangements with scholars who are in residence in
    Cambridge to have informal lunches with us once or twice per week
    during the seminar, but these lunches will be held in the house I will
    rent for the summer at Clare Hall or in the Robert Honeycombe


    Participants will receive a stipend of $ 3,250.  Since the seminar
    will be held overseas, each participant will receive a check for this
    full amount before the seminar begins.

Application Information

    Application information can be found [8]here.  Completed applications
    should be postmarked no later than March 1, 2004, and should be
    addressed as follows:

    Richard Newhauser
    Director, NEH Summer Seminar 2004
    Department of English
    Trinity University
    One Trinity Place
    San Antonio, TX 78212-7200

    Applications can also be sent to me as an e-mail attachment formatted
    in Microsoft Word addressed to:  [9]rnewhaus at trinity.edu.

    The most important part of the application is the essay that must be
    submitted as part of the complete application.  This essay should
    include any personal and academic information about you that is
    relevant to your application; your reasons for applying to this
    particular project; your interest, both intellectual and personal, in
    the topic; your qualifications to do the work of the project and make
    a contribution to it; what you hope to accomplish by participation,
    including any individual research and writing projects; and the
    relation of the study to your teaching.

Preliminary Bibliography

I. Primary Presentations

    a. Desert and Monastery

    Cassian, John.  Collationes patrum.  Edited and translated by E.
    Pichery.  3 vols.  SC 42 [New ed., 1966], 54 [New ed., 1967], 64.
    Paris: Cerf, 19551959.

    ---.  De institutis coenobiorum.  Edited and translated by Jean-Claude
    Guy.  SC 109.  Paris: Cerf, 1965.

    Conrad of Hirsau.  Liber de fructu carnis et spiritus.  PL

    Evagrius Ponticus.  De malignis cogitationibus.  In Évagre le
    Pontique: Sur les pensées, edited by Paul Géhin, Claire Guillaumont,
    and Antoine Guillaumont.  SC 438.  Paris: Cerf, 1998.

    ---.  Praktikos.  In Évagre le Pontique: Traité pratique ou le moine,
    edited and translated by Antoine Guillaumont and Claire Guillaumont.
    2 vols.  SC 17071.  Paris: Cerf, 1971.

    ---.  De octo spiritibus malitiae.  PG 79:1145A64D.

    ---.  De vitiis quae opposita sunt virtutibus.  PG 79:113944.

    Gregory the Great.  Moralia in Iob.  Edited by M. Adriaen.  3 vols.
    CCSL 143143B.  Turnhout: Brepols, 19791985.

    b. Court

    Alcuin.  Liber de virtutibus et vitiis.  PL 101:61338.

    Martin of Braga.  Formula vitae honestae, De , and De superbia.  In
    Martini episcopi Bracarensis opera omnia, edited by C. W, Barlow,
    23650, 150-58, 69-73.  Papers and Monographs of the American Academy
    in Rome, 12.  New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1950.

    Prudentius.  Psychomachia.  In Aurelii Prudentii Clementis carmina.
    Edited by M. P. Cunningham.  CCL 126.  Turnhout: Brepols, 1966.

    c. University

    Abelard, Peter.  Peter Abelard's Ethics: An Edition with
    Introduction.  Edited by D. E. Luscombe.  Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

    Alan of Lille.  Liber poenitentialis.  Edited by Jean Longère.  2
    vols.  Analecta Mediaevalia Namurcensia, 17-18.  Louvain: Editions
    Nauwelaerts, 1965.

    ---.  De virtutibus et de vitiis et de donis spiritus sancti.  Edited
    by Odo Lottin.  In Psychologie et morale aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles,
    6:2792.  Gembloux: J. Duculot, 1960.

    Aristotle.  Ethica Nicomachea.  Translated by Robert Grosseteste.
    Edited by René-Antoine Gauthier.  In Aristoteles Latinus, vol. 26/3.
    Leiden: Brill, 1972.

    Hugh of St. Victor.  De quinque septenis.  In H. de Saint-Victor.  Six
    opuscules spirituels.  Edited by R. Baron, 10018.  SC 155.  Paris:
    Cerf, 1969.

    Peter Lombard.  Magistri Petri Lombardi Parisiensis episcopi
    Sententiae in IV libris distinctae.  2 vols.  3^rd ed.  Spicilegium
    Bonaventurianum, 45.  Grottaferrata: Collegium S. Bonaventurae,

    Thomas Aquinas.  Summa theologiae.  9 vols.  In Sancti Thomae
    Aquinatis doctoris angelici opera omnia iussu impensaque Leonis XIII
    P. M. edita, vols. 412.  Rome: Typographia Polyglotta S. C. de
    Propaganda Fide, 18881906.

    d. Church and Pastoralia

    Alexander Carpenter.  Destructorium viciorum.  Cologne, 1485; Paris,

    Chaucer, Geoffrey.  "The Parson's Tale."  In The Riverside Chaucer.
    Edited by L. D. Benson et al., 288328.  3rd ed.  New York: Houghton
    Mifflin, 1987.

    Gerson, Jean.  "Le profit de savoir quel est péché mortel et véniel."
    In  Jean Gerson.  uvres complètes.  Edited by Palémon Glorieux,
    7/1:37089.  Paris: Desclée, 1966.

    Hugh Ripelin of Strasbourg.  Compendium theologicae veritatis.  In
    Albertus Magnus, Opera omnia, edited by S. C. A. Borgnet, 34:1-261.
    Paris: Vives, 1899.

    Lavynham, Richard.  A Litil Tretys on the Seven Deadly Sins.  Edited
    by J. P. W. M. van Zutphen.  Rome: Institutum Carmelitanum, 1956.

    Mannyng, Robert.  Handlyng Synne.  Edited by F. J. Furnivall.  EETS
    os, 119.  London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1901.

    Peraldus, William.  Summa virtutum ac vitiorum Guilhelmi Paraldi
    Episcopi Lugdunensis de ordine predicatorum.  Paris: Johannes Petit,
    Johannes Frellon, Franciscus Regnault, 1512.

    Robert of Flamborough.  Liber poenitentialis.  Edited by J. J. Francis
    Firth.  Studies and Texts, 18.  Toronto: Pontifical Institute of
    Mediaeval Studies, 1971.

    Ps.-Vincent of Beauvais.  Speculum morale.  In Vincentii Burgundi
    Speculum quadruplex sive speculum maius, vol. 3.  Douai: Ex officina
    Typographica Baltazaris Belleri, 1624.  Reprint, Graz: Akademische
    Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1964.

    e. City

    Berthold of Regensburg.  Berthold von Regensburg: Vollständige Ausgabe
    seiner Predigten.  Edited by Franz Pfeiffer and Joseph Strobl.  2
    vols.  Vienna: W. Braumueller, 1862-80.  Reprint, Berlin: de Gruyter,

    Book for a Simple and Devout Woman: A Late Middle English Adaptation
    of Peraldus's "Summa de vitiis et virtutibus" and Friar Laurent's
    "Somme le Roi."  Edited by F. N. M. Diekstra.  Mediaevalia Groningana,
    24.  Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998.

    Dante Alighieri.  The Divine Comedy.  Edited and trans. by John D.
    Sinclair.  3 vols.  New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 19391946.

    The Latin and German "Etymachia": Textual History, Edition,
    Commentary.  Edited by Nigel Harris.  MTU 102.  Munich: Beck, 1994.

    Gower, John.  Confessio Amantis.  In The English Works of John Gower,
    edited by G. C. Macaulay.  2 vols.  EETS es, 81-82.  London: Kegan
    Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1900-1.

    Notre-Dame Cathedral.  Paris.

    Peter the Chanter.  Verbum abbreviatum.  PL 205:21-528A.

    Tapestry of the Vices and Virtues.  Regensburg, Historisches Museum.

II. Secondary Works

    a. General Works on the Vices

    Bloomfield, Morton W.  The Seven Deadly Sins: An Introduction to the
    History of a Religious Concept, with Special Reference to Medieval
    English Literature.  [East Lansing, MI:] Michigan State Univ. Press,
    1952.  Reprint, 1967.

    Bossy, John.  "Moral Arithmatic: Seven Sins into Ten Commandments."
    In Conscience and Casuistry in Early Modern Europe.  Edited by Edmund
    Leites, 21434.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Paris: Editions
    de la maison des sciences de l'homme, 1988.

    Boyde, Patrick.  Human Vices and Human Worth in Dante's "Comedy."
    Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.

    Casagrande, Carla, and Silvana Vecchio.  "La classificazione dei
    peccati tra settenario e decalogo (secoli XIIIXV)."  Documenti e studi
    sulla tradizione filosofica medievale 5 (1994): 33195.

    ---.  I sette vizi capitali: Storia dei peccati nel Medioevo.  Saggi,
    832.  Turin: Giulio Einaudi, 2000.

    ---.  "Péché."  In Dictionnaire Raisonné de l'Occident Médiéval.
    Edited by Jacques Le Goff and Jean-Claude Schmitt, 87791.  Paris:
    Fayard, 1999.

    Delumeau, Jean.  Sin and Fear.  The Emergence of a Western Guilt
    Culture 13^th 18^th Centuries.  Trans. Eric Nicholson.  New York: St.
    Martin's Press, 1990.

    Howard, Donald R.  The Three Temptations: Medieval Man in Search of
    the World.  Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1966.

    Huizinga, Johan.  The Autumn of the Middle Ages.  Translated by Rodney
    Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch.  Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996.

    In the Garden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the Middle Ages.
    Edited by Richard G. Newhauser.  Forthcoming.

    Jehl, Rainer.  "Die Geschichte des Lasterschemas und seiner
    Funktion."  Franziskanische Studien 64 (1982): 261359.

    Kent, Bonnie.  Virtues of the Will: The Transformation of Ethics in
    the Late Thirteenth Century.  Washington, D. C.: Catholic Univ. of
    America Press, 1995.

    Kroll, Jerome, and Bernard Bachrach.  "Sin and Mental Illness in the
    Middle Ages."  Psychological Medicine 14 (1984): 507-14.

    Lottin, Odon.  Psychologie et morale aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles.  6
    vols.  Gembloux: J. Duculot, 19421960.  [Vol. 1.  2^nd ed.  1957].

    MacIntyre, Alasdair C.  After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory.  2^nd
    ed.  Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1984.

    Markus, Robert A.  The End of Ancient Christianity.  Cambridge, Eng.
    and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.

    Newhauser, Richard G.  The Treatise on Vices and Virtues in Latin and
    the Vernacular.  Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, 68.
    Turnhout: Brepols, 1993.

    ---.  "Zur Zweideutigkeit in der Moraltheologie: Als Tugenden
    verkleidete Laster."  In Der Fehltritt: Vergehen und Versehen in der
    Vormoderne.  Edited by Peter Von Moos, 377402.  Norm und Struktur,
    15.  Cologne, Weimar, and Vienna: Böhlau, 2001.

    Solignac, Aimé.  "Péchés capitaux."  In Dictionnaire de Spiritualité

    Tentler, Thomas.  Sin and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation.
    Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1977.

    Tuve, Rosamond.  "Notes on the Virtues and Vices."  Journal of the
    Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 26 (1963): 264303; 27 (1964): 4272.

    Utley, Francis L.  "The Seven Deadly Sins: Then and Now."  Indiana
    Social Sciences Quarterly 25 (1975): 3150.

    Wenzel, Siegfried.  "The Seven Deadly Sins: Some Problems of
    Research."  Speculum 43 (1968): 122.

    Zöckler, Otto.  Das Lehrstück von den sieben Hauptsünden: Beiträge zur
    Dogmen- und zur Sittengeschichte, in besonders der vorreformatorischen
    Zeit.  In O. Zöckler.  Biblische und kirchenhistorische Studien, 3.
    Munich: Beck, 1893.

    b. Individual Vices or Systems of Vice

    Anger's Past: The Social Uses of an Emotion in the Middle Ages.
    Edited by Barbara Rosenwein.  Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press,

    Augst, Rüdiger.  Lebensverwirklichung und christlicher Glaube: Acedia:
    Religiöse Gleichgültigkeit als Problem der Spiritualität bei Evagrius
    Ponticus.  Saarbrücker theologische Forschungen, 3.  Frankfurt am
    Main: Peter Lang, 1990.

    Bunge, Gabriel.  Akedia: Die geistliche Lehre des Evagrios Pontikos
    vom Überdruß.  4^th rev. ed.  Würzburg: Der Christliche Osten, 1995.

    Cadden, Joan.  " 'Nothing Natural Is Shameful': Vestiges of a Debate
    about Sex and Science in a Group of Late-Medieval Manuscripts."
    Speculum 76 (2001): 66-89.

    Casagrande, Carla, and Silvana Vecchio.  I peccati della lingua:
    disciplina ed etica della parola nella cultura medievale.  Rome:
    Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1987.

    Karras, Ruth Mazo.  "Two Models, Two Standards: Moral Teaching and
    Sexual Mores."  In Bodies and Disciplines: Intersections of Literature
    and History in Fifteenth-Century England, edited by Barbara A.
    Hanawalt and David Wallace, 123-38.  Medieval Cultures, 9.
    Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1996.

    Little, Lester K.  "Pride Goes before Avarice: Social Change and the
    Vices in Latin Christendom."  The American Historical Review 76
    (1971): 1649.

    Markus, Robert A.  "De civitate Dei: Pride and the Common Good."
    Collectanea Augustiniana 1 (1990): 245-59.

    Murray, Alexander.  Reason and Society in the Middle Ages.  Oxford:
    Clarendon, 1978.

    Newhauser, Richard G.  "From Treatise to Sermon: Johannes Herolt on
    the novem peccata aliena."  In De ore domini: Preacher and Word in the
    Middle Ages.  Edited by T. L. Amos et al., 185209. Studies in Medieval
    Culture, 27.  Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Press, 1989.

    ---.  The Early History of Greed: The Sin of Avarice in Early Medieval
    Thought and Literature.  Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature,
    41.  Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.

    Payer, Pierre.  The Bridling of Desire: Views of Sex in the Later
    Middle Ages.  Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1993.

    Nani, T. Suarez.  "Du goût et de la gourmandise selon Thomas
    d'Aquin."  In I cinque sensi / The Five Senses.  Micrologus, 10.
    Florence: Edizioni del Galluzzo, SISMEL, 2002.  In press.

    Theunissen, Michael.  Vorentwürfe der Moderne: Antike Melancholie und
    die Acedia des Mittelalters.  Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1996.

    Vincent-Cassy, Mireille.  "L'Envie en France au Moyen Age."  Annales
    E.S.C. 35 (1980): 253-71.

    ---.  "Quand les femmes deviennent paresseuses."  In Femmes:
    Mariages-Lignages, XIIe-XIVe siècles: Mélanges offerts à Georges Duby,
    431-47.  Bibliothèque du Moyen Age, 1.  Bruxelles: De Boeck
    Université, 1992.

    Wenzel, Siegfried.  The Sin of Sloth: Acedia in Medieval Thought and
    Literature.  Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1967.

    ---.  "The Three Enemies of Man."  Mediaeval Studies 29 (1967): 47-66.

    c. The Vices in Art

    Baumann, Priscilla. "The Deadliest Sin: Warnings Against Avarice and
    Usury on Romanesque Capitals in Auvergne."  Church History 59 (1990):

    Blöcker, Susanne.  Studien zur Ikonographie der Sieben Todsünden in
    der niederländischen und deutschen Malerei und Graphik von 14501560.
    Bonner Studien zur Kunstgeschichte, 8.  Münster and Hamburg: LIT,

    Katzenellenbogen, Adolf.  Allegories of the Virtues and Vices in
    Mediaeval Art from Early Christian Times to the Thirteenth Century.
    Translated by Alan J. P. Crick.  London: The Warburg Institute, 1939.
    Reprint, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1989.

    Norman, Joanne S.  Metamorphoses of an Allegory: The Iconography of
    the Psychomachia in Medieval Art.  American University Studies, series
    IX: History, 29.  New York: Lang, 1988.

    O'Reilly, Jennifer.  Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and
    Vices in the Middle Ages.  New York, London: Garland Publishing, Inc.,

    Schweitzer, Franz-Josef.  Tugend und Laster in illustrierten
    didaktischen Dichtungen des späten Mittelalters: Studien zu Hans
    Vintlers "Blumen der Tugend" und zu "Des Teufels Netz."
    Germanistische Texte und Studien, 41.  Hildesheim: Olms, 1993.

    Virtue and Vice: The Personifications in the Index of Christian Art.
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    Voelkle, William M.  "Morgan Manuscript M.1001: The Seven Deadly Sins
    and the Seven Evil Ones."  In Monsters and Demons in the Ancient and
    Medieval Worlds: Papers Presented in Honor of Edith Porada, edited by
    Ann E. Farkas et al., 101-14.  Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1987.

    d. Origins and the Vices

    Brakke, David.  "The Making of Monastic Demonology: Three Ascetic
    Teachers on Withdrawal and Resistance."  Church History 70 (2001):

    Goehring, James E.  Ascetics, Society, and the Desert: Studies in
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    Nussbaum, Martha C.  The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in
    Hellenistic Ethics.  Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1994.

    O'Laughlin, Michael.  "The Anthropology of Evagrius Ponticus and Its
    Sources."  In Origen of Alexandria: His World and His Legacy, edited
    by Charles Kannengiesser and William L. Petersen, 357-73.  Notre Dame,
    IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

    Röhser, Günter.  Metaphorik und Personifikation der Sünde: Antike
    Sündenvorstellungen und paulinische Hamartia.  Sorabji, Richard.
    Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian
    Temptation.  Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000.

    Stewart, Columba.  Cassian the Monk.  New York and Oxford: Oxford
    Univ. Press, 1998.

    Straw, Carole.  Gregory the Great: Perfection in Imperfection.
    Transformation of the Classical Heritage, 14.  Berkeley, Los Angeles,
    and London: Univ. of California Press, 1988.

    Wibbing, Siegfried.  Die Tugend- und Lasterkataloge im Neuen
    Testament.  Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche
    Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, 25.  Berlin: Töpelmann,

    e. Pastoralia and the Vices

    Handling Sin: Confession in the Middle Ages.  Edited by Peter Biller
    and A. J. Minnis.  York: York Medieval Press, 1998.

    Michaud-Quantin, Pierre.  Sommes de casuistique et manuels de
    confession au Moyen Age (XIIe-XIVe siècles).  Analecta mediaevalia
    Namurcensia, 13.  Louvain, Lille, and Montreal: Nauwelaerts, 1962.

    Owst, Gerald R.  Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England.  2^nd rev.
    ed.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1961.

    ---.  Preaching in Medieval England: An Introduction to Sermon
    Manuscripts of the Period c. 1350-1450.  Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge
    Univ. Press, 1926.  Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell, 1965.

    Spencer, H. Leith.  English Preaching in the Late Middle Ages.
    Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.


    1. http://www.trinity.edu/rnewhaus/outline.html#1
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    6. http://www.trinity.edu/rnewhaus/vita.html
    7. http://www.clarehall.cam.ac.uk/
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