[Paleopsych] SW: NEJM: Abstract: On Chronic Insomnia

Premise Checker checker at panix.com
Fri Oct 7 00:55:46 UTC 2005

Abstract: On Chronic Insomnia
ScienceWeek Message Board
Abstract: On Chronic Insomnia - NEJM 09/29/05 11:30 AM
[Bibliography on chronic insomnia appended.]

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance,
    duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of
    daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances
    for sleep. (Difficulty with sleep maintenance implies waking after
    sleep has been initiated but before a desired wake time.) Most
    research studies adopt an arbitrary definition of a delay of more than
    30 minutes in sleep onset or a sleep efficiency (the ratio of time
    asleep to time in bed) of less than 85 percent. However, in clinical
    practice, a patient's subjective judgment of sleep quality and
    quantity is a more important factor. Transient insomnia lasts less
    than one week, and short-term insomnia one to four weeks.
    Chronic insomnia -- insomnia lasting more than one month -- has a
    prevalence of 10 to 15 percent and occurs more frequently in women,
    older adults, and patients with chronic medical and psychiatric
    disorders. It may follow episodes of acute insomnia in patients who
    are predisposed to having the condition and may be perpetuated by
    behavioral and cognitive factors, such as worrying in bed and holding
    unreasonable expectations of sleep duration. Consequences include
    fatigue, mood disturbances, problems with interpersonal relationships,
    occupational difficulties, and a reduced quality of life.
    Full text: Michael H. Silber (New Engl. J. Med. 2005 353:803):


Bibliography: Chronic Insomnia - JH 09/29/05 11:57 AM

    1. Michael H. Silber. Chronic Insomnia. New Engl. J. Med. 2005
    2. Costa e Silva JA, Chase M, Sartorius M, Roth T. Special report from
    a symposium held by the World Health Organization and the World
    Federation of Sleep Research Societies: an overview of insomnias and
    related disorders -- recognition, epidemiology, and rational
    management. Sleep 1996;19:412-416.
    3. The international classification of sleep disorders, revised:
    diagnostic and coding manual. Rochester, Minn.: American Sleep
    Disorders Association, 1997.
    4. Morin CM, Culbert JP, Schwartz SM. Nonpharmacological interventions
    for insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Am J Psychiatry
    5. Spielman AJ, Caruso LS, Glovinsky PB. A behavioral perspective on
    insomnia treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1987;10:541-553.
    6. Littner M, Hirshkowitz M, Kramer M, et al. Practice parameters for
    using polysomnography to evaluate insomnia: an update. Sleep
    7. The international classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic &
    coding manual, ICDS-2. 2nd ed. Westchester, Ill.: American Academy of
    Sleep Medicine, 2005.
    8. Perlis ML, Smith MT, Pigeon WR. Etiology and pathophysiology of
    insomnia. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and
    practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders,
    9. Bootzin RR, Epstein D, Wood JM. Stimulus control instructions. In:
    Hauri PJ, ed. Case studies in insomnia. New York: Plenum Medical Book,
    10. Spielman AJ, Saskin P, Thorpy MJ. Treatment of chronic insomnia by
    restriction of time in bed. Sleep 1987;10:45-56.
    11. Hauri PJ. Sleep hygiene, relaxation therapy, and cognitive
    interventions. In: Hauri PJ, ed. Case studies in insomnia. New York:
    Plenum Medical Book, 1991:65-84.
    12. Murtagh DRR, Greenwood KM. Identifying effective psychological
    treatments for insomnia: a meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol
    13. Espie CA, Inglis SJ, Tessier S, Harvey L. The clinical
    effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia:
    implementation and evaluation of a sleep clinic in general medical
    practice. Behav Res Ther 2001;39:45-60.
    14. Edinger JD, Wohlgemuth WK, Radtke RA, Marsh GR, Quillian RE.
    Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of chronic primary
    insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;285:1856-1864.
    15. Turner RM, Ascher LM. Therapist factor in the treatment of
    insomnia. Behav Res Ther 1982;20:33-40.
    16. Morgan K, Dixon S, Mather N, Thompson J, Tomeny M. Psychological
    treatment for insomnia in the management of long-term hypnotic drug
    use: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract
    17. Baillargeon L, Demers L, Ladouceur R. Stimulus-control:
    nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. Can Fam Physician
    18. Edinger JD, Sampson WS. A primary care "friendly" cognitive
    behavioral insomnia therapy. Sleep 2003;26:177-182.
    19. Riedel BW, Lichstein KL, Dwyer WO. Sleep compression and sleep
    education for older insomniacs: self-help versus therapist guidance.
    Psychol Aging 1995;10:54-63.
    20. Mimeault V, Morin CM. Self-help treatment for insomnia:
    bibliotherapy with and without professional guidance. J Consult Clin
    Psychol 1999;67:511-519.
    21. Meoli AL, Rosen CL, Kristo D, et al. Oral nonprescription
    treatment for insomnia: an evaluation of products with limited
    evidence. J Clin Sleep Med 2005;1:173-87.
    22. Rogers NL, Dinges DF, Kennaway DJ, Dawson D. Potential action of
    melatonin in insomnia. Sleep 2003;26:1058-1059.
    23. Nowell PD, Mazumdar S, Buysse DJ, Dew MA, Reynolds CF III, Kupfer
    DJ. Benzodiazepines and zolpidem for chronic insomnia: a meta-analysis
    of treatment efficacy. JAMA 1997;278:2170-2177.
    24. Holbrook AM, Crowther R, Lotter A, Cheng C, King D. Meta-analysis
    of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of insomnia. CMAJ
    25. Elie R, Ruther E, Farr I, Elilien G, Salinas E. Sleep latency is
    shortened during 4 weeks of treatment with zaleplon, a novel
    nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:536-544.
    26. Walsh JK, Vogel GW, Scharf M, et al. A five week, polysomnographic
    assessment of zaleplon 10 mg for the treatment of primary insomnia.
    Sleep Med 2000;1:41-49.
    27. Walsh JK, Pollak CP, Scharf MB, Schweitzer PK, Vogel GW. Lack of
    residual sedation following middle-of-the-night zaleplon
    administration in sleep maintenance insomnia. Clin Neuropharmacol
    28. Krystal AD, Walsh JK, Laska E, et al. Sustained efficacy of
    eszopiclone over 6 months of nightly treatment: results of a
    randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adults with
    chronic insomnia. Sleep 2003;26:793-799.
    29. Walsh JK, Roth T, Randazzo A, et al. Eight weeks of non-nightly
    use of zolpidem for primary insomnia. Sleep 2000;23:1087-1096.
    30. Perlis ML, McCall WV, Krystal AD, Walsh JK. Long-term, non-nightly
    administration of zolpidem in the treatment of patients with primary
    insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:1128-1137.
    31. Voshaar RC, van Balkom AJ, Zitman FG. Zolpidem is not superior to
    temazepam with respect to rebound insomnia: a controlled study. Eur
    Neuropsychopharmacol 2004;14:301-306.
    32. Vogel GW, Morris D. The effects of estazolam on sleep,
    performance, and memory: a long-term sleep laboratory study of elderly
    insomniacs. J Clin Pharmacol 1992;32:647-651.
    33. Roth T, Roehrs TA. A review of the safety profiles of
    benzodiazepine hypnotics. J Clin Psychiatry 1991;52:Suppl:38-41.
    34. Monti JM, Attali P, Monti D, Zipfel A, de la Giclais B, Morselli
    PL. Zolpidem and rebound insomnia -- a double-blind, controlled
    polysomnographic study in chronic insomniac patients.
    Pharmacopsychiatry 1994;27:166-175.
    35. Soldatos CR, Dikeos DG, Whitehead A. Tolerance and rebound
    insomnia with rapidly eliminated hypnotics: a meta-analysis of sleep
    laboratory studies. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1999;14:287-303.
    36. Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, Zinny MA, Shader RI. Effect of gradual
    withdrawal on the rebound sleep disorder after discontinuation of
    triazolam. N Engl J Med 1987;317:722-728.
    37. Scharf MB, Roth T, Vogel GW, Walsh JK. A multicenter,
    placebo-controlled study evaluating zolpidem in the treatment of
    chronic insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry 1994;55:192-199.
    38. Rothschild AJ. Disinhibition, amnestic reactions, and other
    adverse reactions secondary to triazolam: a review of the literature.
    J Clin Psychiatry 1992;53:Suppl:69-79.
    39. Roth T, Hartse KM, Saab PG, Piccione PM, Kramer M. The effects of
    flurazepam, lorazepam, and triazolam on sleep and memory.
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1980;70:231-237.
    40. Canaday BR. Amnesia possibly associated with zolpidem
    administration. Pharmacotherapy 1996;16:687-689.
    41. Morgenthaler TI, Silber MH. Amnestic sleep-related eating disorder
    associated with zolpidem. Sleep Med 2002;3:323-327.
    42. Mendelson WB. Clinical distinctions between long-acting and
    short-acting benzodiazepines. J Clin Psychiatry 1992;53:Suppl:4-7.
    43. Morin CM, Colecchi C, Stone J, Sood R, Brink D. Behavioral and
    pharmacological therapies for late-life insomnia: a randomized
    controlled trial. JAMA 1999;281:991-999.
    44. Walsh JK, Schweitzer PK. Ten-year trends in the pharmacological
    treatment of insomnia. Sleep 1999;22:371-375.
    45. Kaynak H, Kaynak D, Gozukirmizi E, Guilleminault C. The effects of
    trazodone on sleep in patients treated with stimulant antidepressants.
    Sleep Med 2004;5:15-20.
    46. Nierenberg AA, Adler LA, Peselow E, Zornberg G, Rosenthal M.
    Trazodone for antidepressant-associated insomnia. Am J Psychiatry
    47. Walsh JK, Erman M, Erwin CW, et al. Subjective hypnotic efficacy
    of trazodone in DSM3-R primary insomnia. Hum Psychopharmacol
    48. Hajak G, Rodenbeck A, Voderholzer U, et al. Doxepin in the
    treatment of primary insomnia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind,
    polysomnographic study. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62:453-463.
    49. Aslan S, Isik E, Cosar B. The effects of mirtazapine on sleep: a
    placebo controlled, double-blind study in young healthy volunteers.
    Sleep 2002;25:677-679.
    50. McClusky HY, Milby JB, Switzer PK, Williams V, Wooten V. Efficacy
    of behavioral versus triazolam treatment in persistent sleep-onset
    insomnia. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:121-126.
    51. Jacobs GD, Pace-Schott EF, Stickgold R, Otto MW. Cognitive
    behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for insomnia: a randomized
    controlled trial and direct comparison. Arch Intern Med
    52. Smith MT, Perlis ML, Park A, et al. Comparative meta-analysis of
    pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for persistent insomnia. Am J
    Psychiatry 2002;159:5-11.
    53. Hauri PJ. Can we mix behavioral therapy with hypnotics when
    treating insomniacs? Sleep 1997;20:1111-1118.
    54. Baillargeon L, Landreville P, Verreault R, Beauchemin JP, Gregoire
    JP, Morin CM. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines among older insomniac
    adults treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with gradual
    tapering: a randomized trial. CMAJ 2003;169:1015-1020.
    55. Morin CM, Bastien C, Guay B, Radouco-Thomas M, Leblanc J,
    Vallieres A. Randomized clinical trial of supervised tapering and
    cognitive behavior therapy to facilitate benzodiazepine
    discontinuation in older adults with chronic insomnia. Am J Psychiatry
    56. Zammit G, Roth T, Erman M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled
    polysomnography and outpatient trial to evaluate the efficacy and
    safety of ramelteon in adult patients with chronic insomnia. Sleep
    57. Zemlan FP, Mulchahey JJ, Scharf MB, Mayleben DW, Rosenberg R,
    Lankford A. The efficacy and safety of the melatonin agonist
    beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin in primary insomnia: a randomized,
    placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial. J Clin Psychiatry
    58. Chesson AL Jr, Anderson WM, Littner M, et al. Practice parameters
    for the nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia: an American
    Academy of Sleep Medicine report: Standards of Practice Committee of
    the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep 1999;22:1128-1133.
    59. Morin CM, Hauri PJ, Espie CA, Spielman AJ, Buysse DJ, Bootzin RR.
    Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia: an American Academy of
    Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 1999;22:1134-1156.

More information about the paleopsych mailing list