[Paleopsych] Policy Studies J.: Religion, policy, and secrecy: the Latter Day Saints and masons.
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Religion, policy, and secrecy: the Latter Day Saints and masons.
Policy Studies Journal, Nov 2003 v31 i4 p669(10).
Paul Rich and David Merchant
AB On a vanished secret order: "Had politics, as in Masonry, been its main
object, it would have held on with tenacity to its principles, as to the
threads of life, and, disregarding its departure from sound morals, or
patriotism, would still have contended, with the infatuation of a Mormonite,
for the enjoyment, in secret, of that which in the eye of the public would
overwhelm its members in confusions." "A Traveller in the United States", A
Ritual and Illustrations of Free-Masonry and the Orange and Odd Fellows'
Societies, Accompanied by Numerous Engravings, and a Key to the Phi Beta
Kappa, S. Thrne, Devon (Shebbear, near Hatherleigh, England), 1835, 251.
The spectacular growth of the Mormon denomination has been accompanied by
church-state policy disputes, ranging from the rights of pro choice groups in
the central square in Salt Lake City to the views of the Mormon hierarchy on
gays in the military. For academics, how to handle the interface of policy
issues with organized religions to which their students or colleagues may
belong are a challenge. Secrecy is a particularly troublesome question.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the Mormons, has a long
history of conflict with other groups in America over public policy issues. The
most celebrated was the nineteenth century confrontation over polygamy. Of all
the issues that have arisen, perhaps the least discussed is the fact that
Mormonism is in some respects a secret society and was strongly influenced by
Freemasonry. The founding prophet of Mormonism, Joseph Smith, wrote in his
History of the Church, "The secret of Masonry is to keep a secret." (Vol. 6, p.
Even in this new millennium, both the Mormons and the Masons feel uncomfortable
when their secrets are discussed. (2) But their views of the sanctity of
secrecy are much further apart than they were a century ago. (3) (For the
purposes of this discussion, the Salt Lake City branch of the Mormon church,
which is the principal one, is being focused upon. However, there are a number
of other Mormon sects.) (4) These days, American Masons are less secretive than
they once were. For the Mormons, the secrecy of their temple activities remains
one of the ingredients of what is a highly successful and rapidly growing
movement, while for the Masons, secrecy is regarded increasingly as an
albatross that helps account for a steep membership decline.
That the subject of secrecy with regard to the Church of Jesus Christ of Later
Day Saints and with Freemasonry is still contentious is remarkable--it would
seem an issue which would belong to a much earlier era which enjoyed covert
ritualism. (5) For one thing, secrecy today is a public relations problem for
any organization that wishes to grow in a twenty-first century environment of
full disclosure and exposure. Moreover, the disenchanted have filled many
library shelves with their exposes of both Masonry and Mormonism. (6) Neither
movement really has secrets if its ceremonies are being discussed.
Attitudes towards secrecy as practiced by a religion or lodge are ambiguous.
What should public policy be towards secretive groups? Of course, we believe in
policies favorable to freedom of association, and yet we are not quite sure
that such freedom should include the existence of societies that may make what
appear to be extreme demands on their members and that conduct their affairs in
a covert fashion. (7)
The confusing civil libertarian sentiments involved in tolerating such groups,
which is the price we must pay for preserving a pluralistic and open society,
are treated by Joseph Bensman and Robert Lilienfeld in their study Between
Public and Private: The Lost Boundaries of the Self: "The double nature of
voluntary associations is apparent in the fact that, while Masonry and all
voluntary associations emphasize the freedom of their members from both
narrower (the family) and wider (the state, the church, and the firm)
institutions, they make demands for peer loyalties upon their members and
subordinate them to a rich hierarchy of ritual and leadership within their own
organization sphere." (8) The same observation might be made about Mormonism.
Secrecy then is an aspect of human behavior and especially of political
behavior which we feel perpetually unsure about. It receives limited attention
from policy journals, although "Secrecy touches our lives more than we
generally like to admit. Most of our thoughts do not immediately get uttered.
Some are simply forgotten, but others we purposely suppress. These are the
secrets--perceptions, gossip, memories, dreams--that we keep back until time
and audience are right. Some of these secrets contribute to a positive sense of
self and to the harmonious continuation of our communities. Others create
debilitating suspicions and uncertainties in self and society." (10)
In considering policies towards secrecy, there is a danger of being a voyeur,
inviting titillations over Mormon temple undergarments and Masonic aprons. We
do well to keep in mind that it is not just Mormons and Masons who have
secrets, for secrecy would seem to be part of everyone's personality, and in
fact secrecy may be an essential part of a balanced personality. Kittredge
Cherry remarks, "We all keep secrets. From neighborhood gossip to government
scandal, the power of secrets is deeply woven into our culture. Some people
disguise their age, hide their poverty or their wealth; other cover up illness,
or the fact that they are in therapy. Deciding the best ways to share
knowledge--when to hide and when to speak--is everybody's lifelong challenge."
The fact is that policies supporting secrecy are not always a bad thing. The
confidentiality of the confession, or of discussions with a doctor or lawyer
are guarded legally in many societies, as are exchanges between a married
couple--and indeed, clinical psychologists have sought to extend such
protection to their discussions with their clients. Psychologically, the
experience of secrets is part of maturing. A pro-secrecy authority remarks,
"Children take a big step toward psychological maturity and identity when they
first learn to keep a secret ... We also express our identity as much in what
we hide as in what we reveal about ourselves." (12) Still, it is considered
axiomatically a character defect to be a too private and circumspect an
individual; in the extreme case such as the billionaire Howard Hughes or the
actress Greta Garbo (famous for her remark "I want to be alone."), the desire
for personal secrecy slips over a line into what some regard as pathological
Where do we get our attitudes that ultimately influence our support of policies
towards secrecy and learn its uses? For some individuals, secrecy is largely
learned in the family unit. But for others, their experience with secrecy is
partly learned by joining a group such as the Mormons or the Masons, where
solemn vows of secrecy are given. The group maintains its identity by sharing
secrets amongst its members, but perhaps a neglected aspect is that it also
cultivates the individual's sense of secrecy as a value and as a means of
So possibly Mormonism and Freemasonry have been criticised too much for their
secrecy. We can remember the delight in childhood of having secrets. The fact
is that most of us still do enjoy the mystery of concealment. It still is an
ingredient of our society, though abused, and much of the thoughtful
psychological literature on the topic suggests that having secrets is part of a
healthy personality. While not always appropriate, it is not the terrible thing
that it has been made out to be, and we ought to think twice about treating it
like a wayward relative.
Ironically, there has been considerable contention between the Mormons and the
Masons that is centered around the groups' secret rituals. Both movements have
a history of exacting oaths of secrecy from their followers. Few if any
organizations have been more adept at reconstruction in the face of adversity,
and at creating another world and a magical empire, as have the Mormons and the
Freemasons,--and to an outsider their tempestuous relationship might seem more
that of rival siblings than deadly rivals than has been understood. Like the
Black Muslims, Mormonism is a religion which owes a great deal in its rites to
Masonry. The qualification should be that it is not the Masonry of London
coffee houses which became intertwined with Mormonism, but the lush ritualism
of nineteenth-century American Freemasonry, which is another matter.
Consider the ethos of nineteenth-century America when Mormonism made its
appearance. While a number of recent studies call attention to the historical
contributions of fraternal orders in the United States, including orders that
did exist then such as the Odd Fellows, and Red Men, it is Masonry which was
the pre-eminent secret society. At the very start of the nineteenth century,
most Masonic lodges were relatively simple affairs, both in architecture and in
ritual. It might be argued that, until that time, lodges had been more
concerned with the world of ideas rather than of ceremony. Authorities such as
Margaret Jacob in studying their influence have shown that the Masonic lodges
of that earlier seventeenth and eighteenth century period were indeed
intellectual and in some ways the progenitors of civil society despite their
secrecy and their gender and social bias.
However, the nineteenth century that gave birth to Mormonism also saw the
creation of an enormous number of additional Masonic degrees and side
organizations promising to confer more exalted honors and communicate ever more
esoteric secrets. Much of this was deliberately arcane. For example, the Masons
often turned to Egypt for a leitmotif, both for their dramas and for their
buildings. (14) This is at variance with the British experience, and the
British actually imported from America a number of the rites such as the
Cryptic and Scottish.
So it was in 1823 during a period of considerable interest in the cabalistic
aspect of Masonry, and particularly in the Royal Arch degrees, that the brother
of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, was initiated in Mount Moriah Lodge
in Palmyra, only two miles from the Smith farm--the same year that the Prophet
was first visited by an angel. The events surrounding the disappearance of
Captain William Morgan, who had threatened to publish the secrets of the
Masonic degrees, took place in 1826 in Batavia and Canandaigua, just fifteen
miles from the farm. Henry Dana Ward published his expose of Freemasonry in
1828, some months before the appearance of the Book of Mormon. The book was
reviewed in the Wayne Sentinel, the newspaper published in Palmyra. In nearby
Canandaigua, William Wines Phelps was publishing an anti-Masonic paper, the
Ontario Phoenix. (15)
The numerous exposes of the period would make general knowledge the stories in
the Masonic degrees such as the discovery of the golden plates in the vault
under the temple. The use by the Masons of cyphers would be familiar, as would
the idea of revelations hidden and then discovered. If one is looking for a
secular origin of the story of Smith's discovery of golden plates, the Royal
Arch degree of Masonry is suggestive.
While Mormon temples are closed to non-Mormons and the activities that take
place are protected by a veil of secrecy, in the Book of Mormon there is a
great deal of negative comment about secrecy. Secret groups are seen as an
affront to the Lord They are oath-bound and of the devil. They can be
interpreted as anti-Masonic but since Joseph Smith later became a Mason, the
evidence of his early knowledge of Freemasonry is contradictory. John Thompson
comments, "While it would be folly to make entirely too much out of this, it
must be said that if the early Mormons were viewed by their contemporaries as
overwhelmingly antimasonic, the language of the Book of Mormon and other early
writings of the Prophet must have tended to substantiate the charge. At the
same time, we must not forget that, even in the very early stages of the
church's life, there were men like Hyrum Smith and Herbert C. Kimball in places
of real authority and ministry in the Church, who were still, as far as anyone
can tell, in good standing with the Craft. Without ever renouncing or seceding
(in an age famous for both, these men were attracted to a Church that
apparently had an antimasonic slant and yet, were accepted for what they had to
Scholars who are Mormons are restrained by the teachings of their denomination
in the areas which they can question. In contrast, while there was a great of
bogus Masonic history created in the nineteenth century that sought to
legitimatize the ceremonies, but eventually a more scientific spirit competed
with the folkloric views and some Masons, though certainly not all, became
sharp critics of their own past. Writes Dr. Brent Morris, "The pathetic irony
is that only one group today believes the tall tales ...--not the Grand Lodges,
not the Scottish Rite, but the antimasons." (17) One must compare that view
with the view that much Masonic writing still is of a low value and accepts a
great deal of crude mythology about the origins of the fraternity and the
necessity for secrecy.
As late as the 1960s, a Masonic authority would warn against open discussion of
the similarity of Mormon and Masonic secret rituals: "Any discussion, in print,
of esoteric Masonic material is prohibited by the Grand Lodge of Washington.
Any detailed discussion of differences and/or similarities between the
so-called secret ceremonies of the Mormon Church and those of Masonry must be
within the tiled recesses of the Lodge." (18) Still, in contemporary
Freemasonry, the questioning of origins and the study of ritual change is now
The results may upset some Masons, but it would be unthinkable for a Mason to
be suspended or dropped from membership for investigating Masonic degrees and
believing that they had relatively modern origins. The same is not the case
with Mormonism, where a member must believe in the divine origins of the
scriptures discovered by Joseph Smith and in the secret rituals which he
mandated for the Mormon temples. A history professor at Brigham Young
University writes, "My name is David C. Wright ... I am NOT the David P. Wright
who believes the Book of Mormon is a novel. I believe in and proclaim the
historicity of the Book of Mormon. I believe there really was a Nephi, a
Moroni, and yes, I believe that physical gold plates really existed and that
Joseph Smith translated them by the gift and power of God." (19)
The idea of rooms closed to the public where secret rites are practiced is part
of both Masonry and Mormonism. Recently Masonic temples have been opened to the
public. In an effort to improve public relations, there are open house
functions when non-Masons can tour and be given an explanation of what goes on.
Mormon temples, on the other hand, unlike local Mormon churches, are not open
to the public.
The popularity of Freemasonry was partly because in nineteenth-century America,
fraternalism was a way by which men escaped from the profanum vulgus: once the
lodge door was guarded, another world opened. This was a serious world. There
is considerable difference in sophistication between the ritualistic activities
of Victorian lodges and Hollywood depictions of fraternity initiations. The
lodge in the nineteenth century was not a place for comic hijinks, but for the
enactment of serious dramas teaching moral precepts.
In 1842, the Prophet had led his flock to Nauvoo in Illinois and announced that
a number of secret rites would be practiced in the newly-constructed temple.
These included washings and anointings, the giving of a new and secret name to
the candidate, the conferring of specially blessed undergarments, oaths of
nondisclosure, and ritual dramas. (20) At the same time he and many Mormons
became members of the Masonic lodge. The iconography of Mormonism began to
include numerous Masonic symbols: "It is ironic that the Craft which did not
obtain the beehive as a symbol from ecclesiastical sources, should have given
it to a church--'given' only in the sense that the Craft venerated the beehive
long before the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormon) adopted it
as one of their principal symbols. The Mormon history includes the Nauvoo,
Illinois, episode, in which the Grand Lodge of that State first granted and
then revoked the charters of lodges composed of Mormons. Doubtless that
experience was at the root of Mormonism taking so much from Freemasonry, basing
its Temple ceremonies upon the degrees and embracing so many Masonic symbols,
including the beehive." (21) joseph Smith had moved over the years from
obliquely criticizing Freemasonry to using it as a source for Mormon rituals.
An example of the Masonic affinities of the temple rites is the following,
based on the revised 1990 ceremonies now used in the temples:
"PETER: By our giving unto you the token and sign you received in the garden of
ADAM: (grasping Peter by the right hand.) What is that?
PETER: The First Token of the Aaronic Priesthood.
ADAM: Has it a name?
PETER: It has.
ADAM: Will you give it to me?
PETER: I cannot, for it is the New Name, and I have made a covenant not to
disclose it, but this is the sign (Peter raises his right arm to square.)
ADAM: Now I know that you are true messengers sent down from Father. (Adam
turns and looks into the camera, addressing the patrons, while Eve stands
smiling at his side). These are true messengers, I exhort you to give strict
heed to their counsel and teaching, and they will lead you in the way of life
and salvation." (22)
Temple activities were and are, even as revised, strikingly similar to Masonic
ones. John Brooke remarks in his important study of the origins of Mormonism,
The Refiner's Fire: "Throughout the temple rituals themselves there were
striking similarities with Masonic symbolism, especially those of the York
rite, which was established at the Nauvoo Lodge. The temple garments, very
similar to Masonic ceremonial garb, included an apron with the Masonic compass
and square, which was also among the emblems of the temple veil. The language
of the tokens and penalties of the Mormon priesthoods had exact parallels in
freemasonry, progressing from parallels with the first three degrees of Entered
Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason to parallels with the Royal Arch and
the higher degrees. Among these parallels to the first three degrees were the
signs of the "five points of fellowship," the penalties for disclosure of
secrets, and priestly handgrips and bodily signing ... ". (23)
This has led to extensive discussion among Mormons as to whether there were
common origins, i.e. that perhaps the Masons had a position similar to
Catholics and the Mormons were group that had restored the pure ancient
traditions. A Mormon Internet discussion group participant asks, "I have heard
speculation that the Masons' ceremony has been passed down since the time of
King Solomon's Temple. Any thoughts on this?" The reply is, "There continues to
be speculation to this end within LDS circles. In part due to there being some
evidence that Joseph Smith made similar statements. For example, there are
personal letters and journal entries from Hebert C. Kimball and Benjamin
Johnson claiming that Joseph taught them that "Masonry was taken from the
Priesthood but has become degenerated. But menny [sic.] things are
perfect"--and "freemasonry was the apostate endowment as sectarian religion was
the apostate religion.... Shortly after Joseph's death, being a practicing
Mason became grounds for excommunication ... and continued for many decades.
Likewise Mormons were forbidden from membership of many Masonic Lodges." (24)
Another way in which Masonry has diverged from Mormonism in its practices is
its inclusiveness. Masonic growth was accompanied by a growing disposition by
the Masons for religious universalism, a heretical stance that was taken
seriously by orthodox Christian critics and which again placed the Craft in
opposition to the Mormon church with its assertions about being the reformed
and reorganized true version of Christianity. The suggestion has been
repeatedly made that Masonry offered a more satisfactory spiritual experience
for some men than did conventional religion, and enabled them to be religious
while asserting their masculinity. That open acknowledgment of this at the time
would have been disastrous to Masonry is an argument of Professor Mark C.
Carnes of Columbia University in his book Secret Ritual and Manhood in
Victorian America. Universalism continues to be a problem between Masonry and a
variety of religions, including Catholicism and Mormonism.
In summary, in the United States, Masonic policies have evolved and gradually
moved away from the secrecy and pseudo-historical claims that once
characterized the society. Secrecy was not abandoned, but it became less
important. On the other hand, for members of the Church of Later Day Saints,
both the genuine historical truth of the revelations received by the Prophet
and his successors, and the secrecy and validity of the temples have remained
cornerstones of faith. It is no wonder that devout Mormons continue to have
considerable difficulties when confronted by Masonry, because it touches on
precious theological precepts. A Masonic critic writes, "... the Church cannot
tolerate any tarnishing of its spernal aura by a shadow cast by such a common,
ordinary, mortal social entity of the world as freemasonry. Hence, its goal is
to expunge any trace of the Ancient Order from every page of its history." (25)
There are many examples of the problems when religious organizations surround
their activities with a wall of sanctity. The right to secrecy is one. So is
the right of the academy to investigate religion in a scholarly way. The case
of the Masons and the Mormons is a good illustration of just how complex these
matters are and.
(1.) ct. Mervin B. Hogan, "Utah Masons Among the Mormons", Southern California
Research Lodge. f.& A.M., n.d., 1.
(2.) Rich has on at two occasions had Mormon academics come up after a paper
and suggest that it was not appropriate to discuss Mormon temple rites in
A lady who was a devout church member added that certainly Masonry had
originated in the time of Solomon and that there was ample evidence. Her
position was strikingly like that of a Roman Catholic defending a Protestant
churchman's position about the Divinity of Christ, while disagreeing with most
other statements that the Protestant had made.
On the other occasion, two Mormon academics who attended a panel came up
afterwards to state quite definitely that there were things that should not be
talked about because they were intensely personal, and among those things there
was the endowment service in the temple.
(3.) This group used to be called the * Reorganized * Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints. I am not sure if they called themselves reformed. But it is
true that they have moved a good deal towards a sort of "generic" protestant
They were originally founded after Joseph Smith Jr's murder by his widow (first
wife) Emma Smith and her son Joseph III, and for a very long time--still?--the
presidency of the Church was held by a lineal descendant of Smith (a practice
based upon the text of a blessing he had given Joseph III promising him the
mantle of prophecy or words to that effect) But in 1995 there was no male heir
and Wallace B. Smith named W. Grant McMurray as his successor (there had been
some talk, I think, of naming a female successor but I may mis-remember). A
similar crisis of descent happened in the LDS Church when the office of Church
Patriarch was done away with because there was no lineal male descendant of
Hyrum Smith. Joseph Jr's brother and fellow martyr, whose line had
traditionally held the office. The RLDS eschewed polygamy (and do not
officially commit themselves on the historical question of whether it was
practiced). They built no temple until the 1980's though, as was mentioned in
another response, they do own the site of the original LDS Temple in Kirtland.
This Temple however was somewhat different than every later Temple beginning
with the one in Nauvoo Illinois, which later burned down. I believe it was in
Nauvoo that the first Endowments were performed, and, coincidentally or not (I
think not), it was also Nauvoo where Smith and others ascended the ranks of
Scottish rite freemasonry, which contributed a hit of ceremonialism to the
The RLDS never went for these aspects of Smith's esotericism and seem to have
quietly dropped them, and their Temple now is more or less a large meeting
hall-I do not believe it has any particular liturgical function. However they
do continue to consider the Book of Mormon as scripture, as well as a number of
revelations received by Joseph Smith Jr. and later RLDS presidents.
I hadnt known the Strangites even still existed, much less that a rapprochement
had occurred between them and the RLDS. There were a number of other splinter
groups, and still are. Some died out or were reabsorbed; but to this day there
are indeed various sects of polygamous Mormons who live in
(4.) a sort of detente with the rest of Utah's LDS population. Contrary to the
impression the press might give, they are not all deranged practitioners of
"blood atonement". They tend to aspire to a kind of communal living dictated by
the "Law of Consecration," after the example of Acts 2.
(5.) "Young Protestant middle-class men [in nineteenth-century America] sought
their rituals not only in the fraternal and beneficiary lodges, but also in
scores of voluntary associations with primarily religious, reform, political,
or economic objectives. College fraternities are an obvious example, but they
involved few men and their initiations were brief and underdeveloped. Fraternal
initiation was more important in Mormonism, temperance societies, the
Know-Nothings and the Knights of the Golden Circle, the Grange, labor and
veterans' organizations, and the life insurance industry. Historians of each of
these subjects have commented on the peculiar role of initiation, which they
generally have attributed to shield members from blacklisting, and fraternal
life insurance firms used ritual to remind members to pay premiums. What is
less appreciated is the extent to which founders and members regarded ritual as
important in and of itself." Mark C. Carnes, Secret Ritual and Manhood in
Victorian America, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1989, 6. See
also Lynn Dumenil, Freemasonry and American Culture, 1880-1930. Princeton
University Press, Princeton (New Jersey), 1984, 221.
(6.) A point by point comparison of Mormon and Masonic rituals can be found at
the "helping Mormons" website at http://www.helpingmormons.org/masendow.htm
(7.) See Fritz Steele, The Open Organization: The Impact of Secrecy and
Disclosure on People and Organizations, Addison-Wesley, Reading
(Massachusetts), 1975, passim.
(8.) Joseph Bensman and Robert Lilienfield, Between Public and Private: The
Lost Boundaries of the Self, The Free Press, New York, 1979, 86.
(9.) Of course, I am aware that terms such as Mormon and Mormonism are
informal, but they are used here for convenience.
(10.) William W. E. Slights, Ben Jonson and the Art of Secrecy, University of
Toronto Press, Toronto, 1994, 4.
(11.) Kittredge Cherry, Hide and Seek, HarperSanFrancisco, 1991, 19.
(12.) Cherry, 23.
(13.) "We have a tremendous sense of belonging when we share hidden knowledge
with another person or a select group ... Even the most mundane organizations
may have secret handshakes and other codes so members can identify who falls
within the boundaries of the group." Cherry, 25.
(14.) While the inspiration for this has been credited to the presence of
Masons on the Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte and the discovery of the
Rosetta Stone, as well as to the influence of Judaism--witness the synagogue
designed by the Mason William Strickland for Philadelphia in 1825--it also is
sometimes attributed to the enthusiasm aroused by the creation early in the
century of two new Masonic organizations, the Rite of Mizraim (Mizraim simply
being the plural of Egyptian) and the Rite of Memphis. Mizraim was organized in
Milan in 1805 and moved to Paris by 1812. It has ninety degrees, and although
claiming to perpetuate the lost tradition of Egyptian hermetics is a confusing
collection of rituals partly based on the kabalah and alchemy as well as the
so-called Scottish Rite, Mizraim and Memphis were merged in Italy in 1881 by
the famous Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi, but are now practiced both by
separate and unified organizations. (Acetates of Misraim and of Memphis.) In
England, John Yarker (1833-1913), who served Garibaldi as the grand chancellor
in his confederation of Masonic degrees, introduced or re-introduced the Rite
of Mizraim as well as other degrees with Egyptian themes, like Garibaldi
attempting to combine Mizraim with Memphis. Other sources include Mozart's
Magic Flute (1791) which in the production by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Berlin
in 1815 was given a fully Egyptian staging that would influence subsequent
productions. One could go further back in history and assert that the interest
in Egypt was prompted by Biblical studies or by the classical tradition and by
claims that Greece and Rome were primarily indebted to Egypt.
(15.) John E. Thompson, The Masons, the Mormons and The Morgan Incident, Iowa
Research Lodge No.2, Ames (Iowa), c.1982, 1-12.
(16.) Thompson, 16-17.
(17.) S.Brent Morris, "The Letter 'G', The Plumbline, Scottish Rite Research
Society, Vol.1 No.3, September 1992, 2.
(18.) Harry L. Steinberg, "Mormonism and Masonry", Masonic Papers, Walter F.
Meier Lodge of Research, Seattle (Washington), Vol. IV No.8, August, 1969, 101.
(19.) Re: LA TIMES ARTICLE at IN%"MORMONL%BYUVM.BITNET at CMSA.BERKELEY.EDU"
"(MORMON LIST)" 20-JUN-1993
(20.) Occultic and Masonic Influence in Early Mormonism, n.a., Institute for
Religous Research, 1996, 2.
(21.) "Symbol of Industry", n.a., The Short Talk Bulletin, Vol.xxxv No.12,
December 1957, The Masonic Service Association of the United States, 5.
(22.) From "Temple ceremonies" at
(23.) John L. Brooke, The Refiner's Fire: The Making of Mormon Cosmology,
1644-1844, Cambridge University Press, 1994, 249.
(24.) Re: temple text, copyright, Masons, etc. IN%"bunner at macc.wisc.edu"
(25.) Hogan, 6.
The Hoover Institution and University of the Americas-Puebla
Archer Huntington Fellow, Library of Congress
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