[Paleopsych] NYT: Cultural Differences Complicate a Georgia Drug Sting Operation

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Cultural Differences Complicate a Georgia Drug Sting Operation
New York Times, 5.8.4


    ROME, Ga., July 29 - When they charged 49 convenience store clerks and
    owners in rural northwest Georgia with selling materials used to make
    methamphetamine, federal prosecutors declared that they had conclusive
    evidence. Hidden microphones and cameras, they said, had caught the
    workers acknowledging that the products would be used to make the

    But weeks of court motions have produced many questions. Forty-four of
    the defendants are Indian immigrants - 32, mostly unrelated, are named
    Patel - and many spoke little more than the kind of transactional
    English mocked in sitcoms.

    So when a government informant told store clerks that he needed the
    cold medicine, matches and camping fuel to "finish up a cook," some of
    them said they figured he must have meant something about barbecue.

    The case of Operation Meth Merchant illustrates another difficulty for
    law enforcement officials fighting methamphetamine, a highly addictive
    drug that can be made with ordinary grocery store items.

    Many states, including Georgia, have recently enacted laws restricting
    the sale of common cold medicines like Sudafed, and nationwide, the
    police are telling merchants to be suspicious of sales of charcoal,
    coffee filters, aluminum foil and Kitty Litter. Walgreens agreed this
    week to pay $1.3 million for failing to monitor the sale of
    over-the-counter cold medicine that was bought by a methamphetamine
    dealer in Texas.

    But the case here is also complicated by culture. Prosecutors have had
    to drop charges against one defendant they misidentified, presuming
    that the Indian woman inside the store must be the same Indian woman
    whose name appeared on the registration for a van parked outside, and
    lawyers have gathered evidence arguing that another defendant is the
    wrong Patel.

    The biggest problem, defense lawyers say, is the language barrier
    between an immigrant store clerk and the undercover informants who
    used drug slang or quick asides to convey that they were planning to
    make methamphetamine.

    "They're not really paying attention to what they're being told," said
    Steve Sadow, one of the lawyers. "Their business is: I ring it up, you
    leave, I've done my job. Call it language or idiom or culture, I'm not
    sure you're able to show they know there's anything wrong with what
    they're doing."

    For the Indians, their lives largely limited to store and home, it is
    as if they have fallen through a looking glass into a world they were
    content to keep on the other side of the cash register.

    "This is the first time I heard this - I don't know how to pronounce -
    this meta-meta something," said Hajira Ahmed, whose husband is in jail
    pending charges that he sold cold medicine and antifreeze at their
    convenience store on a winding road near the Tennessee border.

    But David Nahmias, the United States attorney for the Northern
    District of Georgia, said the evidence showed that the clerks knew
    that the informants posing as customers planned to make drugs. Federal
    law makes it illegal to sell products knowing, or with reason to
    believe, that they will be used to produce drugs. In these cases,
    lawyers say, defendants face up to 20 years in prison and $250,000 in

    In one instance, Mr. Nahmias said, a store owner in Whitfield County
    pulled out a business card from a Georgia Bureau of Investigation
    agent and told the informant that he was supposed to contact the agent
    if someone requested large amounts of the materials. When the
    informant asked if he would call, Mr. Nahmias said, the owner replied,
    "No, you are my customer."

    "It's not that they should have known," Mr. Nahmias said. "In
    virtually or maybe all of the cases, they did know."

    Like many prosecutors, Mr. Nahmias describes methamphetamine, a highly
    potent drug that can be injected, ingested or inhaled, as the biggest
    drug problem in his district. While only about a third of the meth
    here is made in small labs - the majority of the drug used in this
    country comes from so-called superlabs in Mexico - those small labs
    can be highly explosive, posing a danger to children, the environment
    and the police departments that are forced to clean them up. Their
    sources, he said, are local convenience stores.

    "While those people may not think they're causing any harm, the harm
    they cause is tremendous," Mr. Nahmias said. "We really wanted to send
    the message that if you get into that line of business, selling
    products that you know are going to be used to make meth, you're going
    to go to prison."

    Operation Meth Merchant started, Mr. Nahmias said, with complaints
    from local sheriffs that certain stores were catering to the labs.
    Prosecutors paid confidential informants - some former convicts,
    others offered the promise of lighter punishment for pending charges -
    to buy products in stores in six counties beginning in early 2004, and
    drop hints that they were making drugs.

    Defense lawyers said some of the defendants probably did know what
    they were doing when they sold the materials. But on several tapes,
    provided by the government to the lawyers, who played them for a
    reporter, it was not always clear that the people behind the counter

    One recording captures an informant who walked into the Tobacco and
    Beverage Mart in Trenton, Ga., and asked for Pseudo 60, a particularly
    potent brand of cold medicine, which contains pseudoephedrine, the key
    ingredient of methamphetamine. The clerk, Mangesh Patel, 55, said the
    store no longer carried it. "Police guy came here said don't sell,"
    Mr. Patel said. "Misuse. Public misuse."

    The informant replied: "I know what they're doing with it, because
    that's what I'm going to do with it."

    "Yah," Mr. Patel replied, "public misuse."

    When the informant found another bottle of pills that he said might
    work, Mr. Patel told him he could sell only two, under orders from
    "the police guy." The informant asked if his friend could come in and
    buy two more. "Yeah," Mr. Patel replied, "But I cannot sell two to one

    Defense lawyers say the Indians were simply being good merchants and
    obeying what they believed was the letter of the law. Several refused
    to sell more than two bottles of cold medicine, citing store policy.
    They were charged, prosecutors say, because they allowed the
    "customers" to come back the next day for more. Prosecutors say that
    should have made it clear to the clerks that the buyers were up to no

    In some cases, the language barriers seem obvious - one videotape
    shows cold medicine stacked next to a sign saying, "Cheek your change
    befor you leave a counter." Investigators footnoted court papers to
    explain that the clue the informants dropped most often - that they
    were doing "a cook" - is a "common term" meth makers use. Lawyers
    argue that if the courts could not be expected to understand what this
    meant, neither could immigrants with a limited grasp of English.

    "This is not even slang language like 'gonna,' 'wanna,' " said Malvika
    Patel, who spent three days in jail before being cleared this month. "
    'Cook' is very clear; it means food." And in this context, she said,
    some of the items the government wants stores to monitor would not set
    off any alarms. "When I do barbecue, I have four families. I never
    have enough aluminum foil."

    According to court records, prosecutors first identified Ms. Patel as
    the woman who sold two bottles of cold medicine to an informant in
    Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., because her name appeared on the registration of
    a van parked outside. But the driver of the van worked for a company,
    owned by her and her husband, that installs security cameras, and Ms.
    Patel produced records showing that she was picking her son up at a
    day care center in Tennessee at the moment she was said to be in

    Her misidentification has fueled the belief among the Indians that
    investigators were operating on cultural bias. This corner of the
    state is still largely white; Indians began moving here about 10 years
    ago, buying hotels and then convenience stores, and some whites still
    say, mistakenly, that "Patel" means "hotel" in Hindi.

    "They want to destroy all Indian businesses," said Ms. Ahmed, whose
    husband is in jail. "Because they hate us, or I don't know."

    Mr. Nahmias said he was willing to consider evidence of language
    barriers when the cases went to trial later this year. But he denied
    singling out any group. "We follow the evidence where it goes," he

    Still, the case has set off ripples from the green ridges here to the
    Indian state of Gujarat, the traditional homeland of Patels, where
    newspapers have carried articles about the arrests.

    "We go into temple and they look at you - it's a bad image right now,"
    said Dilip Patel, who owns one of the stores involved. "If I have to
    go to the City Hall to do some paper, they see me 'Patel,' they look
    at me I'm a hard man, I'm a bad guy."

    Malvika Patel's husband, who has Americanized his name from Chirag to
    Chris, says his wife's arrest made him think about selling his three
    stores and leaving the country.

    "We are from so much cleaner society where we are from in India," he
    said. "We didn't even know what drugs were."

    Ms. Patel says she has tried to shield herself from the ugly aspects
    of life here - she does not read newspapers because she wearies of all
    the crime. Maybe, she said, that was a mistake. "I think you need all
    this bad knowledge now if you want to live here."

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