[ExI] Fermi's Paradox or Multiple Universes

citta437 at aol.com citta437 at aol.com
Tue Dec 18 01:42:42 UTC 2007

Scientific American Magazine - May, 2003
Parallel Universes
Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct  
implication of cosmological observations
By Max Tegmark

COSMOLOGICAL DATA support the idea that space continues beyond the  
confines of our observable universe. The WMAP satellite recently  
measured the fluctuations in the microwave background (left). The  
strongest fluctuations are just over half a degree across, which  
indicates--after applying the rules of geometry--that space is very  
large or infinite (center). (One caveat: some cosmologists speculate  
that the discrepant point on the left of the graph is evidence for a  
finite volume.) In addition, WMAP and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey  
have found that space on large scales is filled with matter uniformly  
(right), meaning that other universes should look basically like ours.

Is there a copy of you reading this article? A person who is not you but  
who lives on a planet called Earth, with misty mountains, fertile fields  
and sprawling cities, in a solar system with eight other planets? The  
life of this person has been identical to yours in every respect. But  
perhaps he or she now decides to put down this article without finishing  
it, while you read on.

The idea of such an alter ego seems strange and implausible, but it  
looks as if we will just have to live with it, because it is supported  
by astronomical observations. The simplest and most popular cosmological  
model today predicts that you have a twin in a galaxy about 10 to the  
1028 meters from here. This distance is so large that it is beyond  
astronomical, but that does not make your doppelg�nger any less real.  
The estimate is derived from elementary probability and does not even  
assume speculative modern physics, merely that space is infinite (or at  
least sufficiently large) in size and almost uniformly filled with  
matter, as observations indicate. In infinite space, even the most  
unlikely events must take place somewhere. There are infinitely many  
other inhabited planets, including not just one but infinitely many that  
have people with the same appearance, name and memories as you, who play  
out every possible permutation of your life choices.


Cosmologists call Parallel universe as multiple universes or string  
theories. What is the implication of these theories with Fermi's  

If there is a Parallel universe then there is intelligence parallel to  
humans or an intelligent civilization in a universe same as ours that  
have the same laws of physics and quantum mechanics. Our universe has  
several big bangs/singularities, black enery and black holes as well. If  
these were all true as cosmologists claimed then space is infinitely  
large and nobody should be worried about aging and death for  
matter/energy has no beginning and no end.


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