[ExI] Underpopulation, not Overpopulation

Lee Corbin lcorbin at rawbw.com
Tue Apr 7 06:11:09 UTC 2009

Dagon Gmail wrote:

> >    The decline demographic numbers is a prime cause of the
> >    economic malaise affecting the west.
> >    ---Lee
> And I call that counter-productive if not completely dangerous
 > bunk. I say that if one person uses x material resources,
> energy at a certain standard of living, 100 persons will use
 > far more than 100x in resources.

You would have a *chance* to be right (though I would still
suspect not) if technology were not constantly improving.
Mass numbers assist technological breakthroughs because
of the higher numbers of geniuses and others who contribute
mightily to the advances.

An American farmer today can grow five or six times the amount
of food that he could in the 1950s on a single acre of land
(or something like that). If you read about it, you'll be utterly
impressed with the results of the green revolution.

So your statement above just seems quite wrong, in principle
as well as in particular.

> My assertion is that overpopulation is a MAJOR drain on efficiency,
 > resources, energy, not even considering the cheapening of
 > human value, the stress caused by increased societal pressure,
 > exploitation, collapse of individual meaning and worth,

Haven't quite got to the upcoming verb in that sentence, but
I think that all that is poppycock (my own contribution to
the standard of list argument here lately).

What you write only describes the backward countries, who,
usually because of corruption and the unequal distribution
of capitalism, have yet to embrace sufficient technology
to raise their standards of living---which has the exact
*opposite* effect of what you state. Namely, increased
standards of living *increase* efficiencies, decrease
stresses in living, *decrease* exploitation, loss of human
values, collapse of inidividual meaning and so on.

That's easy to see, because it is precisely in the most
technologically advanced nations that the social trends
are the best. Unless you want to resort to the old
discredited Comintern line that the west is only achieving
these unprecedented levels of prosperity by exploiting all
the third world basket cases, which is palpably untrue.

I do thank you for your impressive list of references. I'm
pretty sure that it would be almost impossible for me to
find an equally long list supporting my views, because your
view is a la mode, so to speak. For every book pointing out
the errors of the left/green coalition, there are five
repeating the same claims. In that regard, it's just like
global warming.

Reciting *more* references to your cause doesn't cause you
to win rational debates.


> bastards playing members of society against each other and insurmountable
> congestion in nearly every bit of infrastructure you can imagine at peak use
> and the same gathering dust when they are not used.
> I say that overpopulation is the single most biggest tragedy humanity 
> suffers
> right now, and the only people benefiting from this are the remorseless 
> bastards
> who exploit their fellow humans, by gaming this tragedy like sharks.
> Unfortunately, all this cant be solved.
>     * A Bicentennial Malthusian Essay
>       <http://www.tscpress.com/catalog/czbicent.htm>, John F. Rohe;
>       Rhodes & Easton, Traverse City, MI 49684, ISBN 1-890394-00-9,
>       (192p, $19). Also available from Amazon.com
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1890394009/ecoftm>.
>       Malthus suggested there might be an inverse relationship between
>       the quantity and the quality of human life. Approximately one
>       billion people now go to bed hungry every night. Rohe revisits
>       principles found controversial in 1798 in identifying a root cause
>       of our unrest.
>     * A Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of
>       Great Civilizations
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140176608/ecoftm>, Clive
>       Pointing; St. Martins Press, ISBN 0-312-06987-1 (432p, $24),
>       Penguin USA (Paper) ISBN: 0-140-17660-8 ($15), (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>).
>     * An Essay on Principle of Population
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1573922552/ecoftm>, Thomas
>       Robert Malthus; Prometheus, ISBN 1573922552 (paperback), ($9). The
>       original 1798 essay on population.
>     * Excellent Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population
>       Challenge <http://www.worldwatch.org/pubs/ea/bmp.html>, Lester R.
>       Brown, Gary Gardner, and Brian Halweil; W.W. Norton, 1999,
>       Worldwatch Institute <http://www.worldwatch.org/>, ISBN
>       0393319067, ($13). Also available from Amazon.com
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393319067/ecoftm>.
>       Examines the stakes involved in potentially adding another 3.3
>       billion people to the world population over the next fifty years.
>     * Beyond Malthus: Population and Power
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0130760420/ecoftm>, Neil
>       W. Chamberlain; (out of print), (1970).
>     * Beyond Malthus: Sixteen Dimensions of the Population Problem
>       <http://www.worldwatch.org/pubs/paper/143.html>, 1998, Worldwatch
>       Institute <http://www.worldwatch.org/> ($5). An excellent and
>       easily-read introductory paperback.
>     * Excellent Beyond the Limits, Confronting Global Collapse,
>       Envisioning a Sustainable Future
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0930031628/ecoftm>,
>       Donella Meadows, Dennis Meadows, Jorgen Randers; 1992, Chelsea
>       Green, ISBN 0-930031-55-5 (hard cover) (300p, $19.95), ISBN
>       0930031628(paperback) ($15), (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>). The
>       authors contend that the global industrial system has already
>       overshot some of the earth's vital ecological limits, and could
>       collapse by the mid-21st century unless we commit to sweeping
>       changes now. The first two chapters present an excellent
>       discussion on /exponential growth/.
>     * Cheerfully Childless <http://www.cheerfullychildless.com/> - The
>       Humor Book for Those Who Hesitate to Procreate, Eller Metter &
>       Loretta Gomez; Baker & Taylor and Quality Books, 2002, ISBN
>       0-9711627-0-0
>     * Curbing Population Growth, An Insider's Perspective on the
>       Population Movement
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/030645050X/ecoftm>, Oscar
>       Harkavy; Plenum Press, 1995, ISBN 0-306-45050-X, (249p). An
>       excellent reference book, describing the history of
>       population-oriented organizations and their funders.
>     * Dynamics of Values in Fertility Change
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0198294395/ecoftm>,
>       Richard Leete (Ed.); Oxford Univ Press, 1999, ISBN 0198294395,
>       (360p, $85).
>     * Earth: Our Crowded Spaceship
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0381996255/ecoftm>, Isaac
>       Asimov, (out of print).
>     * Excellent Ending the Explosion: Population Policies and Ethics for
>       a Humane Future
>       <http://www.thesocialcontract.com/cgi-bin/checkitout/checkitout.cgi?thesociaSTORE:home>,
>       W. Hollingsworth; 1996, Seven Locks Press, 800.354.5348, ISBN
>       0-929-765-42-7, ($17.95), (review
>       <http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/revs/nf_gen.html#EndExpl>). Also
>       available from Amazon.com
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0929765427/ecoftm>. Unlike
>       most books, it rightly sees overpopulation as a threat to the
>       human spirit as well as to our physical well-being.
>     * _Extinction or Survival_, M.J. Turner; 1996, Ardmore Publishing,
>       875 Ardmore Dr., RR2, Sidney BC, Canada, V8L 5G2, ISBN
>       0-9680850-0-8, ($24.95). Carefully researched, this book deals
>       with the real problems of overpopulation and the resulting
>       excessive environmental exploitation, showing how the carrying
>       capacity of Planet Earth is being seriously eroded.
>     * _How Does Congress Approach Population and Family Planning Issues:
>       Results of Qualitative Interviews with Legislative Directors_,
>       Sally Patterson, David M. Adamson; Rand Corporation
>       <http://www.rand.org/>, 1999, ISBN 0833027042, (49p, $8).
>       Congressional opinions on population issues are highly polarized.
>       About 90% of Congress consistently votes either for or against
>       population-related legislation. Thus the remaining 10 percent is
>       likely to determine the fate of such issues. Researchers
>       interviewed a sample of legislative directors in this category.
>       Most felt that the U.S. should continue to play a leading role
>       internationally, but several noted that their bosses favor more
>       multilateral approaches. A majority felt that world population
>       growth is a problem but is not urgent. Nearly unanimous support
>       was expressed for U.S. support of voluntary family planning if it
>       excludes abortion. Congress would benefit from more factual
>       information on population issues.
>     * Intended Consequences : Birth Control, Abortion, and the Federal
>       Government in Modern America
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0195046579/ecoftm>, Donald
>       T. Critchlow; Oxford Univ Press, 1999, ISBN 0195046579, (320p,
>       $9). Contains 13 essays by well-known feminist scholars and
>       activists on the major global issues relevant to the environment,
>       development, and population. The authors discuss issues of racism,
>       paternalism, and scapegoating. Also discussed are reproductive
>       technology, the impact of population growth on the environment,
>       effects of militarism and consumption, and social justice movements.
>     * Excellent How Many People Can the World Support?
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393314952/ecoftm>, Joel
>       E. Cohen; Norton, New York, 1995, ISBN 0393314952, ($13). A
>       well-documented and referenced book on the history of human
>       population growth, and past and current attempt to project human
>       carrying capacity of the planet. A definitive work on the
>       population problem.
>     * Excellent Juggernaut, Growth on a Finite Planet
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0929765516/ecoftm>,
>       Lindsey Grant; 1996, Seven Locks Press, ISBN 0-929765-51-6
>       (paperback) (363p). An informative and fascinating book which
>       compellingly presents the social, political, and economic
>       implications of continued population growth. One of the best
>       synopsis of the population problem.
>     * Excellent Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population
>       Taboos <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/019507811X/ecoftm>,
>       Garrett Hardin. Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-507811-X.
>       (339p, $25), (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>).
>       Wonderfully rich in clear logic, original ideas and insights.
>     * Malthusian Worlds: Us Leadership and the Governing of the
>       Population Crisis
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0813390737/ecoftm>, Ronald
>       Walter Greene; Harpercollins, 1999, ISBN 0813390737, ($65).
>     * Maybe One : A Personal and Environmental Argument for Single-Child
>       Families
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0684852810/ecoftm>, Bill
>       McKibben; Simon & Schuster, 1998, ISBN 0684852810, (256p, $17).
>       The growing population of the U.S. is a significant threat to
>       world sustainability because of high U.S. consumption levels.
>       McKibben discusses the concept of having only one child, on a
>       personal level and from the perspective of impact on the ecosphere.
>     * Our Crowded Planet
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0313226393/ecoftm>,
>       Fairfield Osborn; Greenwood Publishing Group, 1983, ISBN
>       0313226393, (240p, $60). A splendid document of contemporary
>       civilization not because it solves the problem of overpopulation
>       but because it brings into focus the immediacy of the problem as
>       an individual, national, and international concern. This book
>       includes essays by major figures in the arts and sciences,
>       including Marston Bates, Henry Steele Commager, F. Fraser Darling,
>       Charles G. Darwin (grandson of _The Origin of Species_ Darwin),
>       Julian Huxley, Joseph Wood Krutch, Arnold Toynbee, Solly
>       Zuckerman, and Paul B. Sears.
>     * Our Plundered Planet
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0316666084/ecoftm>,
>       Fairfield Osborn; Little Brown, 1948, (out of print). The author
>       calculates Earth's carrying capacity at less than 2 billion (p.
>       37). An early warning on the population/resource/environment
>       crisis. This book focused on renewable resources but added
>       overpopulation to the equation. Osborn saw the nation's forests,
>       grasslands, and water resources as threatened. "The tide of the
>       earth's population is rising, the reservoir of the earth's living
>       resources is falling," the author wrote. "There is only one
>       solution: Man must recognize the necessity of cooperating with
>       nature." Fairfield Osborn was a distinguished author, naturalist,
>       and conservationist. He was president of the New York Zoological
>       Society and chairman of the Conservation Foundation.
>     * Excellent Overshoot, The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0252008189/ecoftm>,
>       William R. Catton, Jr.; University of Illinois Press, 1980, ISBN
>       0-252-00818-9 (hard cover), (270p, $30), ISBN 0-252-00988-6
>       (paperback). An important book - well written with a rich
>       bibliography.
>     * Planetary Overload: Global Environmental Change and the Health of
>       the Human Species
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521558719/ecoftm>, A.
>       McMichael; Cambridge Univ. Press,1993, ISBN 0521558719 ($12). This
>       eloquent and alarming book examines the likely impact on human
>       health of the ongoing degradation of the planet's ecosystems.
>     * Population and Politics Since 1750
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0813912571/ecoftm>,
>       William H. McNeill, University Press of Virginia, 1990, ISBN
>       0-8139-1257-1, (71p). In this brief discussion, the author ponders
>       the question: is demography the engine that drives history?
>     * Population, Environment and Development
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9211512654%20/ecoftm>:
>       Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on
>       Population, Environment and Development, U.N., United Nations
>       Publications, 1994, ISBN 9211512654, ($30). Reports on the Expert
>       Group meeting in 1992, recommending integrating environmental and
>       population issues into planning and policy making.
>     * Population, Evolution, and Birth Control, A Collage of
>       Controversial Ideas
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0716706709/ecoftm>, Ed.
>       Garret Hardin; W.H. Freeman, 1964, ISBN 0716706709, (381p). An
>       engrossing collection of articles, reviews, and criticisms
>       reflecting all shades of opinion on what is perhaps the most
>       important social problem facing mankind.
>     * Population Fallacies
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0301740313/ecoftm>, Jack
>       Parsons; Elek/Pemberton, London, 1977, ISBN 0301740313 (286p, out
>       of print), (review
>       <http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/revs/nf_gen.html#PopFall>). Under
>       the three basic categories of Common Sense, Scientific, and
>       Economic Fallacies, the discussion ranges over such topics as the
>       use of statistics, foretelling the future, military power,
>       migration, manpower, economic development, space travel, the myth
>       of the large happy family and the limits to growth. Each fallacy
>       is clearly stated, solidly documented, thoroughly analyzed and
>       finally dismissed.
>     * Population Geography: Problems, Concepts, and Prospects
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0787256722/ecoftm>, Gary
>       L. Peters, Robert P. Larkin; Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1999, ISBN
>       0787256722, ($47). This textbook is an introduction to population
>       geography, and covers theories of population growth, demographic
>       data and processes, population distribution and composition, and
>       the environment and food supply. Tables, maps, and data are provided.
>     * Population Growth, Resource Consumption, and the Environment
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1550580647/ecoftm>:
>       Seeking a Common Vision for a Troubled World, D. Richard Searle,
>       Rick Searle; Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1995, ISBN
>       1550580647, ($14).
>     * Population Handbook - A Quick Guide for Journalists, Teachers, etc
>       <http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/books_pop.html>., 70-page booklet,
>       ISBN 0-917136-09-8. It contains definitions and features
>       "Calculating the TFR", "How Life TablesWork", etc.
>     * Population, A Lively Introduction
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9992437618/ecoftm>,
>       McFalls; Population Reference Bureau <http://www.prb.org/prb/>,
>       1991, ISBN 9992437618, ($9).
>     * Excellent Population: an Introduction to Concepts and Issues
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0534553052/ecoftm>, John
>       R. Weeks; Wadsworth, 1992, ISBN 0534553052 (hardcover) ISBN
>       0-534-17346-2. (579p, $88.00), (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>). A
>       college textbook and a good introduction to population issues,
>       including terms and definitions.
>     * _Population and Environment: a Journal of Interdisciplinary
>       Studies_, Human Sciences Press, 212.620.8000. This journal deals
>       with both issues in a comprehensive and integrated manner.
>     * Population and the World Bank: Adapting to Change
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0821344404/ecoftm>, World
>       Bank, 1999, ISBN 0821344404, ($22), (abstract
>       <http://www.worldbank.org/html/extpb/abshtml/14430.htm>). The
>       global demographic situation has changed dramatically since the
>       World Bank started population work three decades ago. This
>       publication discusses how to apply the Bank's Health, Nutrition,
>       and Population (HNP) Sector Strategy of 1997 to the Bank's work on
>       population and reproductive health.
>     * Population Politics: the Choices that Shape our Future
>       <http://www.thesocialcontract.com/cgi-bin/checkitout/checkitout.cgi?thesociaSTORE:home>,
>       Virginia Abernethy; 1993, Plenum Publishing, ISBN 0-306-44461-5,
>       (350p, $27). Also available from Amazon.com
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0306444615/ecoftm>.
>       (Review, titled Why Do Women Have Babies
>       <http://dieoff.org/page56.htm>, Robert A. McConnell). A
>       provocative book that raises disturbing questions about
>       demographic and immigration policies and their implications for
>       the future of the world. A splendid critique of how U.S. foreign
>       aid and liberal immigration policy result in population growth in
>       the U.S. and abroad.
>     * _Population, Resources and the Environment: The Critical
>       Challenges_, United Nations Population Fund, 1991, ISBN
>       0-89714-101-6. (154p, $25), (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>).
>     * _Road to Survival_, William Vogt; Sloane, 1948, (review
>       <http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/revs/nf_gen.html#RoadSurv>). Another
>       of the classic "early warnings," like Osborn's book, but much
>       starker - in Vogt's view, the United States in 1948 at 147 million
>       was already overpopulated, and its self-indulgent materialism
>       doomed it to eventual extinction.
>     * The American Dream: Can It Survive the 21st Century?
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/157392265X/ecoftm>, Joseph
>       L. Daleiden; Prometheus Books, 1999, ISBN 157392265X. (550 p.,
>       $25). An ambitious and comprehensive book, offering well
>       though-out solutions to complex problems. Ed Levy states in a
>       review that: "Daleiden's basic message, then, is that today's acts
>       are destroying tomorrow, and that we are stealing, not just
>       borrowing, from the future and that we must accept the possibility
>       of disasters if we are to prevent them. ...An additional value of
>       the book is the validity of its arguments: e.g., the deft
>       debunking of the 'demographic transition' theory (with the
>       addition that even if it were true, it would be too late, because
>       of doubling time, to matter when it kicked in)."
>     * The Challenge of Man's Future
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0813300339/ecoftm>,
>       Harrison Scott Brown; Viking, 1953, ISBN 0813300339. A classic
>       early warning on impending population and resource problems.
>     * The Fear of Population Decline
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0126851905/ecoftm>,
>       Micheal S. Teitelbaum; ISBN 0126851905, (out of print).
>     * The Future of Population: Predictions
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0297819232/ecoftm>, John
>       I. Clarke; Orion, 1999, ISBN 0297819232, ($4).
>     * The Ostrich Factor: Our Population Myopia
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0195122747/ecoftm>,
>       Garrett Hardin; Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-19-512274-7,
>       (153p, $16). (excerpts and review
>       <http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/revs/nf_ostrich_factor.html>). With
>       clear logic and imaginative insight, Garret Hardin has again given
>       us a strong helping hand in the unending task of overcoming denial
>       of the tough issues in population, economics, and ethics.
>     * The Population Bomb
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0891908617/ecoftm>, Paul
>       Ehrlich; ISBN 0891908617, ($22). (PBS review
>       <http://www.pbs.org/population_bomb/>), (excerpts
>       <http://www.pbs.org/kqed/population_bomb/quotes.html>). This book
>       looks at the ideas of one scientist whose theories link
>       overpopulation to a broad range of global problems (somewhat
>       outdated - instead see _The Population Explosion_ below).
>     * Excellent The Population Explosion
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0671732943/ecoftm>, Paul
>       R. and Anne H. Ehrlich; Simon and Schuster, 1990, ISBN
>       0-671-68984-3. (320p, $19), (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>
>       additional review <http://dieoff.org/page27.htm>), and (excerpts
>       <http://www.pbs.org/kqed/population_bomb/quotes.html>). A classic
>       work, this superb, closely reasoned, and fact-filled book should
>       do much to clear the way for badly needed political action.
>     * The Stork and the Plow
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0300071248/ecoftm>, Paul
>       and Anne Ehrlich; Putnam, 1995, ISBN 0-399-14074-3, (384p, $15),
>       (excerpts <http://www.pbs.org/kqed/population_bomb/quotes.html>).
>       Humanity and agricultural fertility are on a collision course; the
>       stork is threatening to overtake the plow. Yet the very existence
>       of this dilemma is largely unappreciated by the general public as
>       well as politically- and ecologically-oriented pundits.
>     * The Third Revolution: Environment, Population and a Sustainable
>       World <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140146598/ecoftm>,
>       Paul Harrison, I.B. Tauris; in association with the World Wide
>       Fund for Nature, Penguin, 1993, ISBN 0140146598. (359 p, $12.00).
>       An excellent introduction; (EGJ review
>       <http://drseuss.lib.uidaho.edu:70/docs/egj02/groat01.html>).
>     * Excellent World Population
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0929765664%20/ecoftm>,
>       Leon F. Bouvier, Jane T. Bertrand; Seven Locks Press, 1999, ISBN:
>       0929765664, (203 p, $13).
>       "Readable, insightful, scholarly, and objective. Whatever your
>       view on population growth, few disagree that it presents the
>       future with some major challenges. An important book about a fast
>       developing, worldwide problem." -- Richard D. Lamm.
>       "Bouvier and Bertrand's new book offers a measured and informed
>       appraisal - for those who would prefer to actually understand." --
>       Michael S. Teitelbaum.
>     * Excellent World Population Growth
>       <http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0897165527/ecoftm>, George
>       E. Immerwahr; Peanut Butter Publishing, 226 2nd Ave. West,
>       Seattle, WA 98119, 206.281.5965, ISBN 0-89716-552-7 (184p, $12).
>       This excellent book explains population growth in clear, concise
>       terms and contains an excellent demographic appendix. The author,
>       a demographer with extensive overseas exposure to the population
>       issue, states that population problems are colossal but not
>       hopeless and is chiefly concerned for the world's children. /If
>       you have trouble finding this book, contact Suggestions and
>       EcoFuture <http://www.ecofuture.org/forms/pop_commentform.html>./ 
>   Books on Overpopulation

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