[Paleopsych] Hedgehog: Felicia Wu Song: Towards a Working Perspective of Technology: A Bibliographic Essay
checker at panix.com
Mon Oct 25 14:53:32 UTC 2004
Felicia Wu Song: Towards a Working Perspective of Technology: A
The Hedgehog Review - Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture
Felicia Wu Song is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
Sociology at the University of Virginia and a Dissertation Fellow at
the Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture. She is currently
working on her dissertation, which focuses on how Internet technology
influences the shape of American public life by mediating and
reframing our conceptions of community, intimacy, and the self.
For many Americans, technology is mysterious. Despite the fact
that technologies of all sorts impact almost every aspect of our daily
lives, we continue to function with relatively uninformed conceptions
of technology. We usually don't know or understand the technical
mechanics of the technologies that we enjoy. When we purchase
technologies such as computers, we have a vague sense that the
computer may affect our family life, our friendships, the ways we
work, and the development of our children, but we don't know much
In the past two to three decades, there has been a proliferation
of works concerning technology and its effects on various spheres of
society. It is now common to find books and conferences on technology
and democracy, technology and gender, technology and the workplace,
technology and religion, technology and education, technology and
community, technology and literature, just to name a few. While this
growing literature is extremely helpful in examining the ways that
existing social institutions and cultural practices are challenged and
reshaped by new technological developments, these texts are often
thinly veiled normative arguments about how democracy, education, or
communities ought to be, rather than works that clarify the nature of
technology and how it "works" in society. These texts are crucial to
the development of a robust public discourse about our technologies,
but they often fail to provide a broader framework from which
individuals can engage and assess technologies. Many questions that
need to be addressed remain unanswered: What is technology? How does
it relate to individual action and social order? Is technology an
autonomous force that determines history? Or can it be resisted? How
does a new technology shift from being the stuff of science fiction to
becoming a part of our everyday worlds, even shaping our sense of
reality? Is our society prone to develop or use particular kinds of
technologies over others? Are there certain types of technologies that
are better than others for living the "good life"? Do technologies
tend to reinforce or break down power structures?
The need for a more sophisticated and constructive understanding
of technology is apparent as contemporary developments in
biotechnology, nanotechnology, psychopharmacology, and computer
technology seem to outpace our legal, social, and cultural
institutions' abilities to guide and manage these developments. With
each new technological advance, it becomes clearer that the existing
public discourse on technology is lacking a language for discussing
and engaging our technologies in meaningful ways.
Despite the fact that the amount of thoughtful and creative
scholarship on technology has been growing in the traditional
disciplines of history, sociology, and philosophy (and in newer fields
such as communications, media ecology, cultural studies, and science
and technology studies), it is an area of literature that continues to
be surprisingly unrecognized and underutilized in America. The works
cited in this bibliographic essay contribute to the important task of
moving beyond either an uncritical acceptance of technologies or vague
feelings of helplessness. They are also useful for challenging the
common notion that technology is merely a tool, having no social or
cultural significance, by revealing the ways that technology is
integrally bound up in social institutions, morality, power
structures, cultural practices, and the creativity of its users. While
the literature on technology is vast, this bibliographic essay aims to
provide a basic typology of the technology literature, highlighting
the dominant approaches and main areas of study, that will help
readers move towards constructing a language or framework that is
capable of meaningfully engaging the technologies of our times.
Early Perspectives on Technology
Fascination and enthusiasm are what usually greet new
technologies in American society. Much like the faith that Western
civilization has had in modern science, the optimism and excitement
that is commonly expressed for technologies can be traced back to the
belief in Progress that characterized eighteenth-century Enlightenment
thinking. Thinkers like Voltaire and Condorcet believed that science
and technology were ultimately the keys to achieving the perfection of
the human race, empowering people with the fruits of rational
knowledge and the development of means to fulfill material needs.
Technologies often played a large role in utopian visions, eliminating
social inequality and ensuring political freedom for all.
While the notion that technology both symbolized and guaranteed
progress sprung from the Enlightenment in Europe, it quickly became
integrally bound up in the fledgling culture of the newly established
United States of America. With prolific inventors such as Benjamin
Franklin and Thomas Jefferson among the nation's leaders, technology
was truly regarded as a means to humanity's steady moral, social,
political, and material betterment. Progress was considered
inevitable, and technology would be the means of achieving it. In the
nineteenth century, not only did Americans celebrate technologies such
as railroads, steamboats, and industrial machinery, for the
unprecedented prosperity that they brought to the American economy,
but Americans also were awed by and even revered the sheer power and
grandeur of technologies, dazzled by what historians have come to call
the "technological sublime." This unwavering faith in technologies
characterized the popular American sentiment, leading many to believe
that American success was as inevitable as the progress that
technology would bring.
Because this conception of technology as progress has so
dominated the American perspective, much of the contemporary
scholarship on technology sees this idea as a point of departure. Many
of the following books offer the necessary historical context for
understanding present-day technological utopianism. Merritt Roe Smith
and Leo Marx's Does Technology Drive History?, Howard Segal's
Technological Utopianism in American Culture, and Daniel Czitrom's
Media and the American Mind provide especially excellent historical
and theoretical overviews of America's love for technology.
Boorstin, Daniel. The Image or What Happened to the American Dream.
New York: Atheneum, 1962.
Corn, Joseph J., ed. Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and
the American Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to
McLuhan. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.
Kasson, John F. Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican
Values in America, 1776-1900. New York: Penguin, 1976.
Lasch, Christopher. The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its
Critics. New York: Norton, 1991.
Marvin, Carolyn. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about
Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1988.
Marx, Leo. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral
Ideal in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Nye, David E. American Technological Sublime. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Segal, Howard P. Technological Utopianism in American Culture.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Smith, Merritt Roe, and Leo Marx. Does Technology Drive History?:
The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Staudenmaier, John M., S.J. Technology's Storytellers: Reweaving
the Human Fabric. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985.
Theoretical Perspectives on Technology and Society
Understanding technological change in contemporary society is
one of the dominant areas of research and theoretical work being done
in the historical and sociological scholarship on technology. The
primary questions beings asked are: What is the relationship between
technology and society? Does technology drive history and social
change? Or, does society determine the technology that it produces?
While earlier accounts of technology focused primarily on recording
the nuts-and-bolts development or engineering of technology, what
dominates analyses now is the effect that technology and society have
on each other. Two perspectives, technological determinism and social
constructivism, are the main points of departure for the majority of
Technological Determinism: Technology's Effect on Society
The approach of technological determinism views technology as a
powerful and autonomous force that changes history and social order.
This perspective is present in most histories that argue that
technologies were responsible for such enormous historical shifts in
human history as the Industrial Revolution, the Protestant
Reformation, and the period of Post-Industrialism. According to
technological determinists, the realms of technology and society are
understood to be distinct spheres--the active sphere of technology and
the passive sphere of society. This passivity was perhaps best summed
up in the motto for the code 1933 /code Chicago "Century of Progress"
World Fair: "Science Finds. Industry Applies. Man Conforms." While
technology is understood as a natural by-product of the quest for
scientific knowledge, it is understood to be autonomous. Once created,
it seems to have a "life of its own" with consequences that its
inventor or engineer could never have foreseen.
Another characteristic of the technological determinist
perspective is that technology itself--its medium, the technical form
and features--is the source of social change. An outgrowth of this
view is commonly found in media analysis, such as that of Neil
Postman, Harold Innis, and Marshall McLuhan. Their accounts argue that
different media have different "biases," which determine not only
different ways of thinking and perceiving the world, but also
different types of civilizations. Strong forms of technological
determinism will point to the use of papyrus to explain the fall of
the Roman Empire or to the printing press to explain the rise of
rational thinking and reason. An example of weaker forms of
technological determinism, Joshua Meyrowitz's book, No Sense of Place,
shows how the medium of television altered the boundaries of private
and public life in American society by bringing political culture and
public life into the living rooms of Americans.
Present in both optimistic and pessimistic evaluations of
technology, tendencies towards technological determinism can be found
equally in McLuhan's vision of the global village made possible by
electronic technologies and in Jacques Ellul's concern for the
technologizing (and, thus, rationalizing) of all domains of life.
Despite the implicit characterization of human beings and institutions
as passive, technological determinism accurately captures the idea of
unintended consequences, and how deeply they can affect the most
fundamental aspects of our lived reality.
Beniger, James R. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic
Origins of the Information Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 1986.
Eisenstein, Elizabeth. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern
Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Ellul, Jacques. The Technological Society. New York: Knopf, 1964.
Innis, Harold A. Empire and Communication. Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1972.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Meyrowitz, Joshua. No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic
Media on Social Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt,
Brace & World, 1963.
Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.
New York: Methuen, 1982.
Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Viking, 1985.
Tenner, Edward. Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge
of Unintended Consequences. New York: Vintage, 1996.
White, Lynn, Jr. Medieval Technology and Social Change. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1962.
Social Constructivism: Society over Technology
In response to the tendencies of scholarship towards
technological determinism, the social construction of technology
approach was begun in the mid-eighties by sociologists Wiebe Bijker
and Trevor Pinch. Drawing from the theoretical work done in the
sociology of science, where assumed notions of postivism and
scientific inevitability were sufficiently challenged, the social
constructivist perspective sought similarly to reveal the levels of
contingency and human agency involved in the innovation process of
technology. By showing the ways that the design and use of
technologies are very much products of particular social and cultural
contexts, embedded with pre-existing cultural assumptions and meanings
from their inception to their institutionalization, agency is restored
to society as the producer of technology. No longer is technology
"autonomous"; rather it is shown to be the natural outcome of our
While social constructivism adequately addresses an important
blindspot of technological determinism, it still persists in
analytically separating technology from society, theoretically
implying a dichotomy that does not substantively exist. Alternative
models have emerged out of the social constructivist project to
address this problem, one of which is Thomas Hughes' systems approach,
viewing technologies not as individual artifacts, but as entire
constellations or systems in which social and technical aspects
interact together. Similarly, Bruno Latour's actor-network theory
works with the metaphor of technology as interconnecting networks that
link human beings and non-human entities together, conveying the
mutually constitutive nature of technology and society. Historian Ruth
Schwartz Cowan's essay in Social Construction of Technological Systems
suggests that much can be gained from examining a technology at the
point at which it is being considered by a consumer making choices
between competing technologies. She argues that by analyzing
technological change from the user's perspective, there is theoretical
room for a dialectical relationship between the constructivist view of
technology and the deterministic one.
Bijker, Wiebe, Thomas Hughes, and Trevor Pinch, eds. Social
Construction of Technological Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,
1987. Especially Ruth Schwartz Cowan's "The Consumption Junction:
A Proposal for Research Strategies in the Sociology of
Bijker, Wiebe, and J. Law, eds. Shaping Technology/Building
Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 1992. Especially Bruno Latour's "Where Are the Missing
Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts."
Hughes, Thomas. Networks of Power: Electrification in Western
Society, 1880-1930. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
Law, John, ed. A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power,
Technology and Domination. London: Routledge, 1991.
MacKenzie, Donald. Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of
Nuclear Missile Guidance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.
MacKenzie, Donald, and Judy Wajcman, eds. Social Shaping of
Technology: How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum. Milton Keys: Open
University Press, 1985.
Meikle, Jeffrey. American Plastic: A Cultural History. New
Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995.
Nye, David. Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New
Technology, 1880-1940. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.
Winston, Brian. Misunderstanding Media. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 1986.
Philosophy of Technology
While historical and sociological debates between technological
determinism and social constructivism concern the relationship between
technology and society, questions about the actual nature of
technology and the resulting lifeworld that is shaped by it motivate a
distinctly philosophical literature on technology. Drawing from a rich
European tradition of exploring technological issues, many
philosophers of technology explore the logic and nature of technology
itself and consider its significance and meaning in our experience of
life. The works of Heidegger, Gehlen, and Berger best reflect the
German philosophical tradition that rejects the instrumental notion of
technology (as being merely a means to an end) and conceptualizes
technology as a way of viewing the world and its objects. As a result,
the socio-psychological consequences of the technologized life are
primary areas of focus. How are our "technologically textured" lives
different from the lives of previous generations? What is the role of
technology in our pursuit of the good life, individually and
communally? According to Albert Borgmann's theory of technology, while
there are particular goals and needs that technology can be expected
to fulfill, our lives include particular practices and things that are
better off being directly engaged without technological mediation.
Similarly, Erik Parens' edited volume, Enhancing Human Traits,
problematizes the common notion that technology enhances our lives.
What constitutes enhancement? And what are the ethics for using
technologies to enhance our lives? While the European line of
philosophical inquiry dominates much of the field, Carl Mitcham's
Thinking through Technology offers a thorough survey and discussion of
the various philosophical perspectives on technology. Lesser known
traditions include the philosophy of technology that stems from
American philosopher John Dewey's critique of technology. Larry
Hickman's and Hans Joas' works are representative of pragmatist
inquiries into the role of public life and values in the construction
and use of technologies.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. 2^nd ed. Chicago: The University
of Chicago Press, 1998.
Berger, Peter L., Brigitte Berger, and Hansfried Keller. The
Homeless Mind: Modernization and Consciousness. New York: Vintage,
Borgmann, Albert. Technology and the Character of Contemporary
Life: A Philosophical Inquiry. Chicago: The University of Chicago
Feenberg, Andrew. Questioning Technology. London: Routledge, 1999.
Gehlen, Arnold. Man in the Age of Technology. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1980.
Habermas, Jürgen. Toward A Rational Society. Boston: Beacon, 1968.
Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology. New York:
Harper & Row, 1977.
Hickman, Larry A. Philosophical Tools of Technological Culture:
Putting Pragmatism to Work. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
code 2001 /code .
Higgs, Eric, Andrew Light, and David Strong. Technology and the
Good Life? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Ihde, Don. Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Mitcham, Carl. Thinking through Technology: The Path between
Engineering and Philosophy. Chicago: The University of Chicago
----, and Robert Mackey, eds. Philosophy and Technology: Readings
in the Philosophical Problems of Technology. New York: Free, 1972.
Pacey, Arnold. Meaning in Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,
Parens, Erik, ed. Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social
Implications. Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1998.
Winner, Langdon. Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as
a Theme in Political Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977.
Technology and Power
Coming to grips with how technological change is integrally
wrapped up in issues of power and politics was a major area of concern
for scholars and thinkers of the twentieth century. In literature,
George Orwell's 1984 and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World are perhaps
the most well known explorations into the ways that technology can be
used coercively by totalitarian governments to enforce social control.
Herbert Marcuse's seminal work, One Dimensional Man, has been a point
of departure for more recent scholarship by critical theorists Douglas
Kellner and Andrew Feenberg, who grapple with the ways that particular
understandings of technology mask political powers that are in fact
being exercised. Other scholars such as Langdon Winner have sought to
show the inadequacy of the idea of scientific or technological
inevitability commonly expressed in our culture and to argue for a
conception of technology as a political artifact that implicitly leads
to distinct types of social orders, benefiting particular institutions
and groups of people. Concerns about who will decide how technologies
are implemented and distributed are raised in the respective works of
Lawrence Lessig and Lori Andrews, as they document the extent to which
market forces and tendencies of commodification increasingly shape the
development of Internet technologies and biotechnologies. As a whole,
these works play an important role in examining how technologies are
institutionalized in ways that maintain or exacerbate existing power
structures, raising difficult questions about what resources are
available in our social institutions to protect the vulnerable and the
weak from exploitation.
Andrews, Lori, and Dorothy Nelkin. Body Bazaar: The Market for Human
Tissue in the Biotechnology Age. New York: Crown, code 2001 /code
Feenberg, Andrew, and Alastair Hannay, eds. Technology and the
Politics of Knowledge. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
Kellner, Douglas. Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and
Politics between the Modern and the Postmodern. New York:
Lessig, Lawrence. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in
a Connected World. New York: Random House, code 2001 /code .
Marcuse, Herbert. One Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of
Advanced Industrial Society. Boston: Beacon, 1964.
Noble, David F. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the
Rise of Corporate Capitalism. New York: Knopf, 1977.
Robins, Kevin, and Frank Webster. Time of the Technoculture: From
the Information Society to the Virtual Life. London: Routledge,
Williams, Raymond. Television: Technology and Culture Form. New
York: Schocken, 1975.
Winner, Langdon. The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in
an Age of High Technology. Chicago: The University of Chicago
Technology and Feminism
Feminist scholarship on technology generally falls into two
stages. Early gender and technology issues frequently concerned the
impact of technology on the everyday lives of women, whether focusing
on computer technology in the workplace, technology in the domestic
setting, or reproductive technology. In analyzing the trends towards
deskilling, cheapened labor, increased domestic work, or the
re-conceptualizations of women's reproduction and sexuality, these
early approaches to technology and women focused on the ways that
technologies were designed and produced by men, thus shaped by
patriarchal values and interests in maintaining inequality and in
exploiting women's bodies.
These essentialist assertions have since received much criticism
by those feminists who argue that technologies cannot be inherently
gendered and that they are ultimately socially constructed artifacts
that can be redirected to serve women's ends. Reflective of these
broader shifts in the feminist movement, technologies are now often
explored as a means of deconstructing gender, identity, and even human
being, as seen in the works of Donna Haraway, Allucquere Rosanne
Stone, and others who examine the social and political implications of
cyberculture for women. In conjunction with these explorations into
technology's impact on gender, an emerging literature is developing on
how women are appropriating technologies to fight against
institutional discrimination by networking on-line to improve the
conditions of women worldwide.
Cockburn, Cynthia, and Susan Ormrod. Gender and Technology in the
Making. London: Sage, 1993.
Cowan, Ruth. More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household
Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York: Basic,
Cutting Edge: The Women's Research Group, ed. Desire by Design:
Body, Territories and New Technologies. London: Tauris, 1999.
Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of
Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Harcourt, Wendy, ed. Women at Internet: Creating New Cultures in
Cyberspace. London: Zed, 1999.
Harding, Sandra, ed. Perspectives on Gender and Science. Brighton:
Keller, Evelyn Fox, and Helen E. Longino. Feminism and Science.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Rothman, Barbara Katz. Recreating Motherhood: Ideology and
Technology in a Patriarchal Society. New York: Norton, 1989.
Rothschild, Joan, ed. Machina Ex Dea. New York: Pergamon, 1983.
Star, Susan Leigh, ed. The Cultures of Computing. Oxford:
Stone, Allucquere Rosanne. The War of Desire and Technology at the
Close of the Mechanical Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.
Wajcman, Judy. Feminism Confronts Technology. Cambridge: Polity,
Technology and Its Discourse
The task of understanding and assessing technology is often
complicated by the fact that so much hype and debate often surround
the technologies that we use. Deciphering whether scholars and pundits
are reacting to technology or the surrounding rhetoric is not always
an easy task, for the discursive aspects of technology in our culture
play a significant role in making technologies what they are.
Separating out the myths and rhetoric that shape the ways that
technologies are used and understood from the technology itself is a
crucial task that has been taken up by various scholars in different
areas ranging from the Internet to genetics. Understanding the effects
of marketing, the use of metaphors of technology, and the roles that
the scientific community plays in shaping our understanding of
technology sheds light on the fundamental characteristics and values
of contemporary American culture. Each of the following works explore
and reveal the ways that technologies are mythologized, their
capacities exaggerated and ultimately made sacred by language and
Carey, James W., ed. Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and
Society. New York: Routledge, 1992.
Hubbard, Ruth, and Elijah Wald. Exploding the Gene Myth: How
Genetic Information is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists,
Physicians, Employers, Insurance Companies, Educators, and Law
Enforcers. Boston: Beacon, 1993.
Merchant, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for
Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkeley: University of California Press,
Herman, Andrew, and Thomas Swiss, eds. The World Wide Web and
Contemporary Cultural Theory. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Ross, Andrew. Strange Weather: Culture, Science, and Technology in
the Age of Limits. London: Verso, 1991.
Slack, Jennifer D., and Fred Fejes, eds. The Ideology of the
Information Age. Norwood: Ablex, 1987.
Stivers, Richard. Technology as Magic: The Triumph of the
Irrational. New York: Continuum, 1999.
Woodward, Kathleen, ed. The Myths of Information: Technology and
Postindustrial Culture. London: Routledge/Kegan Paul, 1980.
Technology and Postmodernism
While science and technology may be rightly identified with the
project of modernity, it might be just as fair to view contemporary
technologies as the very tools that are, ironically, dismantling the
assumptions of modernism and ushering in the realities of
postmodernism. While the claims of postmodernism may seem abstract and
distant to the person on the street, Kenneth Gergen's and Sherry
Turkle's works show that the experiences of constructing multiple
identities or gender-bending in cyberspace directly challenge the
essentialist notions of identity and gender. As the technology of
virtual reality poses serious questions about the ontological status
of reality, and cutting-edge biotechnologies and artificial
intelligence hint at the possibilities of a "posthuman era," it
becomes clear that many of the borrowed premises of our social and
political order are increasingly fragile and perhaps even meaningless.
George Landow's and Richard Lanham's explorations into the
implications of computer hypertext (that is, blocks of text linked
electronically in an open-ended network) for our conceptualization of
knowledge throw into question long-held assumptions about reason and
rationality. Whether these technologies actually represent the start
of a new reality and new age remains to be seen. However, considering
the fact that technology has always been the symbol of progress, it
should come as no surprise then that technologies today are regarded
as liberatory agents from modernist frameworks of meaning and reality.
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press, 1994.
Borgmann, Albert. Crossing the Postmodern Divide. Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Carter, Steven. Leopards in the Temple: Studies in American
Popular Culture. ^2nd ed. San Francisco: International Scholars,
Gergen, Kenneth J. The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in
Contemporary Life. New York: Basic, 1991.
Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in
Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: The University
of Chicago Press, 1999.
Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of the
Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Lanham, Richard. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and
the Arts. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Lévy, Pierre. Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age. New
York: Plenum, 1998.
Penley, Constance, and Andrew Ross, eds. Technoculture.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
Poster, Mark. What's the Matter with the Internet? Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, code 2001 /code .
Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the
Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
More information about the paleopsych