# [Paleopsych] the birth of galaxies--just another wonder-dance

HowlBloom at aol.com HowlBloom at aol.com
Fri Jan 21 04:43:26 UTC 2005


The  following story hints that galaxies formed in the darkness of the great
gravity  wars roughly 400,000 years After the Big Bang (400,000 ABB). These
proto-galaxies, these huge gravitational clumps, were ovoid, spinning, and
would  have looked like primitive, potato-shaped galaxies if we’d been able to see
them.  But we would not have seen  them.  They’d have been utterly  dark.
Slowly (actually rapidly in cosmic time)  gravity balled together the fists of
black holes at these galaxies’ hearts.  …until those black holes heart—the
ultimate destroyers—began to birth stars.  Thus the great destroyers were also
the great creators. And the  competition and pre-biotic carnage of the
gravity crusades led to the empires of  circling stars we now see as galaxies.
Howard
Retrieved January 20, 2005, from the World Wide Web
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111090727.htm Source:  Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory Date: 2005-01-20 Print this page Email to  friend Good News From Big
Bad Black Holes  LIVERMORE, Calif. -- Astronomers have discovered how ominous
black  holes can create life in the form of new stars, proving that jet-induced
star formation may have played an important role in the formation of
galaxies in  the early universe.
_..\text\black hole spewing stars.jpeg_
(aoldb://mail/write/..\text\black%20hole%20spewing%20stars.jpeg)   This  false-color image incorporates infrared
data (invisible to the human eye).  The blue regions (essentially the whole of
Minkowski’s Object) show  enhanced star formation. The red background galaxy
and two red foreground  stars appear in sharp contrast. The red overlay is the
radio jet. (Image  courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Related
News Stories  Galaxies And Black Holes: You Can't Have  One Without The Other
(February 20, 2001) -- Galaxies and black holes are so  intimately connected
that it is almost impossible to find one without the other,  according to
University of Michigan astronomer Douglas Richstone. ... > full  story  Which Came
First: Black Hole  Or Galaxy? (January 14, 2000) -- U-M astronomer says black
holes formed early  and influenced galactic ... > full story  Astrophysicists
Discover Massive Forming  Galaxies (September 19, 2003) -- A Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory  astrophysicist, in collaboration with international
researchers, has found  evidence for the synchronous formation of massive,
luminous elliptical galaxies  in ... > full story  Black Holes  In Distant Galaxies
Point To Wild Youth, Chandra Discovers (June 5, 2002) --  Like 'flower power'
tattoos on aging ex-hippy baby boomers, unexpectedly large  numbers of neutron
stars and black holes in elliptical galaxies suggest some of  these galaxies
lived through a ... > full story  > more related stories Related  section:
Astronomy  Observatory in New Mexico, the Keck telescopes in Hawaii and the
Hubble Space  Telescope, astronomers Wil van Breugel and Steve Croft have shown
that  "Minkowski’s Object," a peculiar starburst system in the NGC 541 radio
galaxy,  formed when a radio jet – undetectable in visible light but revealed by
radio  observations– emitted from a black hole collided with dense gas.  The
researchers carried out the  observations after computer simulations at
Lawrence Livermore National  Laboratory by Chris Fragile, Peter Anninos and Stephen
Murray had shown that  jets may trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds
and induce star  formation.  The astronomers will  present their findings today
at the American Astronomical Society 205th national  meeting, in San Diego,
Calif.  "Some  20 years ago this kind of thinking was thought to be science
fiction," said van  Breugel, who along with Croft works at the Laboratory’s
Institute for Geophysics  and Planetary Physics. "It brings poetic justice to black
holes because we think  of them as sucking things in, but we’ve shown that
when a jet emits from a black  hole, it can bring new life by collapsing clouds
and creating new stars."  Radio jets are formed when material  falls into
massive black holes. Magnetic fields around the black holes  accelerate electrons
to almost the speed of light. These electrons are then  propelled out in narrow
jets and radiate at radio frequencies because of their  motion in the
magnetic fields. The jets may affect the formation of stars when  they collide with
dense gas.  But  only recently have van Breugel and Croft figured out how this
happens. The  regions between stars in a galaxy are filled with mainly gas and
dust, and are  commonly called the interstellar medium. The gas appears
primarily in two forms  as cold clouds of atomic or molecular hydrogen or as hot
ionized hydrogen near  young stars.  In the case of the  recent discovery, the
Livermore researchers observed that when a radio jet ran  into a hot dense
hydrogen medium in NGC 541, the medium started to cool down and  formed a large
neutral hydrogen cloud and, in turn, triggered star formation.  Although the
cloud did not emit visible radiation, it was detected by its radio  frequency
emission.  "The formation  of massive black holes is critical to the formation of
new galaxies," Croft  said.  Van Breugel, who has been  studying black holes
since his days as a postdoctoral fellow more than 20 years  ago, said the
recent observations are another good reason to study the  relationship between
black holes and early galaxies. He said the conditions his  team saw in NGC 541
may be important in understanding the formation of galaxies  in the early
universe.  "Our  observations show that jets from black holes can trigger extra
star formation.  In the early universe this process may be important because the
galaxies are  still young, with lots of hydrogen gas but few stars, and the
black holes are  more active," he said.  According to  the big bang theory, the
universe is believed to have originated approximately  13.5 billion years ago
from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter in all  directions.  Although van
Breugel  and Croft observed the jets by using the VLA, Keck and Hubbel images,
they also  said that the Livermore computer simulations by Fragile, Anninos
and Murray were  crucial to verify that this is happening.  NGC 541 is
approximately 216 million light years from Earth and is  roughly half the size of the
Milky Way.  In addition to van Breugel and Croft, other collaborators on the
project  include W. de Vries, UC Davis; J. H. van Gorkom, Columbia University;
R.  Morganti and T. Osterloo, ASTRON, Netherlands; M. Dopita, Australian
National  University; C. Fragile, UC Santa Barbara; and Anninos and Murray, LLNL.
Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore  National Laboratory is a national security
laboratory, with a mission to ensure  national security and apply science and
technology to the important issues of  our time. Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory is managed by the University of  California for the U.S. Department
of Energy's National Nuclear Security  Administration.  Editor's Note: The
original news release can be found here.  This story has been adapted from a
news release issued by Lawrence  Livermore National Laboratory. Can't find it?
Try searching ScienceDaily or the  entire web with: Google Web sciencedaily.com
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———————

----------
Howard Bloom
Author of The Lucifer Principle: A  Scientific Expedition Into the Forces of
History and Global Brain: The Evolution  of Mass Mind From The Big Bang to the
21st Century
Visiting Scholar-Graduate  Psychology Department, New York University; Core
www.howardbloom.net
www.bigbangtango.net
Founder:  International Paleopsychology Project; founding board member: Epic
of Evolution  Society; founding board member, The Darwin Project; founder: The
Big Bang Tango  Media Lab; member: New York Academy of Sciences, American
Association for the  Advancement of Science, American Psychological Society,
Academy of Political  Science, Human Behavior and Evolution Society, International
Society for Human  Ethology; advisory board member: Youthactivism.org;
executive editor -- New  Paradigm book series.
For information on The International Paleopsychology  Project, see:
www.paleopsych.org
for two chapters from
The Lucifer  Principle: A Scientific Expedition Into the Forces of History,
see  www.howardbloom.net/lucifer
For information on Global Brain: The Evolution of  Mass Mind from the Big
Bang to the 21st Century, see  www.howardbloom.net

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