[Paleopsych] NYT: DNA of Deadbeat Voles May Hint at Why Some Fathers Turn Out to Be Rats
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Fri Jun 10 23:44:56 UTC 2005
DNA of Deadbeat Voles May Hint at Why Some Fathers Turn Out to Be Rats
By NICHOLAS WADE
Some male prairie voles are devoted fathers and faithful partners,
while others are less satisfactory on both counts. The spectrum of
behavior is shaped by a genetic mechanism that allows for quick
evolutionary changes, two researchers from Emory University report in
today's issue of Science.
The mechanism depends on a highly variable section of DNA involved in
controlling a gene. The Emory researchers who found it, Elizabeth A.
D. Hammock and Larry J. Young, say they have detected the same
mechanism embedded in the sequence of human DNA but do not yet know
how it may influence people's behavior.
Voles, not to be confused with the burrowing, hill-making mole, are
mouselike rodents with darker coats and fatter tails. The control
section of their DNA expands and contracts in the course of evolution
so that members of a wild population of voles, the Emory researchers
have found, will carry sections of many different lengths. Male voles
with a long version of the control section are monogamous and devoted
to their pups, whereas those with shorter versions are less so.
People have the same variability in their DNA, with a control section
that comes in at least 17 lengths detected so far, Dr. Young said.
So should women seek men with the longest possible DNA control region
in the hope that, like the researchers' voles, they will display
"increased probability of preferences for a familiar-partner female
over a novel-stranger female"?
Dr. Young said he expected that any such genetic effect in men would
be influenced by culture, and thus hard to predict on an individual
The control mechanism is also present in humans' two closest cousins,
the chimpanzee and the bonobo, and bears on a controversy as to which
of the two species humans more closely resemble.
Chimpanzees operate territorially based societies controlled by males
who conduct often-lethal raids on neighboring groups. Bonobos, which
look much like chimps, are governed by female hierarchies and
facilitate almost every social interaction with copious sex.
The DNA sequence of humans, chimps and bonobos is generally very
similar, but in the section that controls response to the hormone
vasopressin, the Emory researchers have found the human and bonobo
versions differ significantly from that of the chimp. Though not too
much can be deduced from a single gene, the result shows that bonobos
should be taken very seriously as a guide to human behavior and that
the chimp is not the only model, said Dr. Frans de Waal of the Yerkes
National Primate Research Center in Atlanta.
Dr. de Waal, who is writing a book, "The Inner Ape," said the last
common ancestor of all three species presumably possessed the elements
of both chimp and bonobo behavior, and that humans also "unite all
The effects of vasopressin on the behavior of the three higher
primates is not well understood, but has been studied in voles for
many years. The hormone, generated by the pituitary gland at the base
of the brain, makes male prairie voles form monogamous pair bonds, but
has no similar effect in the determinedly polygamous montane vole.
The Emory researchers recently noticed that in their prairie vole
colony, some fathers spent more time with their pups and some less.
They traced the source of this variability to its molecular roots, a
variation in the length of the DNA region that controls a certain
This is the gene for the vasopressin receptor, the device used by
neurons to respond to vasopressin. Voles with long and short DNA
segments had different patterns of vasopressin receptors in their
brains, which presumably changed their response to the hormone.
The long and short DNA segments differ by only 19 DNA units, mostly
the same two units repeated over and over. The repeats are notorious
for confusing the DNA copying apparatus, which every few generations
or so may insert an extra repeat or delete one. The random changes
have generated a spectrum of lengths in the voles that in turn
underlies the variability in behavior, the Emory researchers say.
They proved the point by separating voles with the shortest length and
longest length of DNA and showing that their progeny differed in
Dr. Young said he suspected that many other genes that influenced
behavior, in voles and other species, might have fallen under similar
control systems. Because the DNA repeats are so variable, they
generate diversity more quickly than most other types of mutation. And
a population whose individuals show a range of behavior is more likely
to include some who can better adapt to a new situation.
Dr. Gene Robinson, an expert in social behavior at the University of
Illinois, said the new finding was "a significant advance in
sociogenomics," the attempt to explain social life in terms of DNA,
because it showed how easily behavior could be changed just by
altering a gene's activity, not the gene itself.
For a long time, researchers have assumed the genetic control of
behavior would be too complex a problem to address. "The nice thing
about this story is that it tells you it's not complex," Dr. Young
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