[Paleopsych] Wiki: Information Literacy
checker at panix.com
Wed Mar 30 20:13:34 UTC 2005
This is a very good summary of what information literacy is. I've been
trying to persuade the powers that be at the U.S. Department of Education,
as they extend the No Child Left Behind Act to high school. to allow the
States to go ahead and develop curriculum standards for information
literacy that won't get neglected when complying with NCLB assessment
tests in reading, mathematics, and science. So far, not much luck, for
there's a pervasive us vs. them mentality afloat, whereby critics of NCLB
are seen as obstructionists looking for excuses to back off NCLB
standards. The reality is quite a bit more nuanced. Perhaps E.D. could be
persuaded to launch a new initiative, to promote information literacy. I'd
call it "Education for the World of 2025," "Information Literacy for the
Future," or some such. Getting political appointees to pay attention is
>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Information literacy is the ability "to recognize when information is
needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively
the needed information" (1989, p. 1).
An information literate person is one who:
* recognizes that accurate and complete information is the basis for
intelligent decision making
* recognizes the need for information
* formulates questions based on information needs
* identifies potential sources of information
* develops successful search strategies
* accesses sources of information including computer-based and other
* evaluates information
* organizes information for practical application
* integrates new information into an existing body of knowledge
* uses information in critical thinking and problem solving (Doyle,
Since information may be presented in a number of formats, the term
information applies to more than just the printed word. Other
literacies such as visual, media, computer, network, and basic
literacies are implicit in information literacy.
1 History of the concept
2 Evolution of the economy
3 Effect on education
4 Education in the USA
4.2 K-12 education restructuring
4.3 Efforts in K-12 education
4.4 Efforts in higher education
4.6 Distance education
6 External links
History of the concept
The seminal event in the development of the concept of information
literacy was the establishment of the ALA Presidential Committee on
Information Literacy whose final report outlined the importance of the
Other important events include:
* 1983: A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Education Reform
+ shows that we are "raising a new generation of Americans that
is scientifically and technologically illiterate."
* 1986: Educating Students to Think: The Role of the School
Library Media Program
+ outlines the roles of the library and the information
resources in K-12 education
* 1987: Information Skills for an Information Society: A Review
+ includes library skills and computer skills in the definition
of information literacy
* 1988: Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media
* 1989: National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL), a
coalition of more than 65 national organizations, has its first
* 1998: Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning
+ emphasizes that the mission of the school library media
program is "to ensure that students and staff are effective
users of ideas and information."
Evolution of the economy
The change from an economy based on labor and capital to one based on
information requires information literate workers who will know how to
Barner's (1996) study of the new workplace indicates significant
changes will take place in the future:
* The work force will become more decentralized
* The work force will become more diverse
* The economy will become more global
* The use of temporary workers will increase
These changes will require that workers possess information literacy
skills. The SCANS (1991) report identifies the skills necessary for
the workplace of the future. Rather than report to a hierarchical
management structure, workers of the future will be required to
actively participate in the management of the company and contribute
to its success. To survive in this information society, workers
will need to possess skills beyond those of reading, writing and
Effect on education
Because information literacy skills are vital to future success:
* Information literacy skills must be taught in the context of the
* Instruction in information literacy skills must be integrated into
the curriculum and reinforced both within and outside of the
Education in the USA
With the passage of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act (1994),
subject matter organizations were able to obtain funding to develop
standards in their respective subject areas. Information literacy
skills are implicit in the National Education Goals and national
content standards documents.
Three of the eight National Education Goals demonstrate the critical
nature of information literacy to an information society:
* Goal 1: School Readiness
* Goal 3: Student Achievement and Citizenship
* Goal 6: Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning
An analysis of national content standards documents reveals that they
all focus on lifelong learning, the ability to think critically, and
on the use of new and existing information for problem solving.
Individual states are creating initiatives to ensure that students
attain information literacy skills by the time they graduate from high
school. Kentucky (1995), Utah (1996), and California (1994) are but
three examples of states that have publications depicting these
National content standards, state standards, and information literacy
skills terminology may vary, but all have common components relating
to information literacy.
K-12 education restructuring
Educational reform and restructuring make information literacy skills
a necessity as students seek to construct their own knowledge and
create their own understandings.
Educators are selecting various forms of resource-based learning
(authentic learning, problem-based learning and work-based learning)
to help students focus on the process and to help students learn from
the content. Information literacy skills are necessary components of
The process approach to education is requiring new forms of student
assessment. Students demonstrate their skills, assess their own
learning, and evaluate the processes by which this learning has been
achieved by preparing portfolios, learning and research logs, and
Efforts in K-12 education
Information literacy efforts are underway on individual, local, and
Imaginative Web based information literacy tutorials are being created
and integrated with curriculum areas, or being used for staff
Library media programs are fostering information literacy by
integrating the presentation of information literacy skills with
curriculum at all grade levels.
Information literacy efforts are not being limited to the library
field, but are also being employed by regional educational consortia.
Parents are encouraging their children to develop information literacy
skills at home by contacting KidsConnect, the Internet help and
referral service for K-12 students. Parents are also helping students
work through the information problem solving process as they assist
their children with their homework.
Efforts in higher education
The inclusion of information competencies as a graduation requirement
is the key that will fully integrate information literacy into the
curricula of academic institutions.
Information literacy instruction in higher education can take a
variety of forms: stand-alone courses or classes, online tutorials,
workbooks, course-related instruction, or course-integrated
State-wide university systems and individual colleges and universities
are undertaking strategic planning to determine information
competencies, to incorporate instruction in information competence
throughout the curriculum and to add information competence as a
graduation requirement for students.
Academic library programs are preparing faculty to facilitate their
students' mastery of information literacy skills so that the faculty
can in turn provide information literacy learning experiences for the
students enrolled in their classes.
Information Technology is the great enabler. It provides, for those
who have access to it, an extension of their powers of perception,
comprehension, analysis, thought, concentration, and articulation
through a range of activities that include: writing, visual images,
mathematics, music, physical movement, sensing the environment,
simulation, and communication (Carpenter, 1989, p. 2).
Technology, in all of its various forms, offers users the tools to
access, manipulate, transform, evaluate, use, and present information.
Technology in schools includes computers, televisions, video cameras,
video editing equipment, and TV studios.
Two approaches to technology in K-12 schools are technology as the
object of instruction approach, and technology as the tool of
Schools are starting to incorporate technology skills instruction in
the context of information literacy skills.
Technology is changing the way higher education institutions are
offering instruction. The use of the Internet is being taught the
contexts of subject area curricula and the overall information
There is some empirical indication that students who use technology as
a tool may become better at managing information, communicating, and
Now that information literacy has become a part of the core curriculum
at many post-secondary institutions, it is incumbent upon the library
community to be able to provide information literacy instruction in a
variety of formats, including online learning and distance education.
The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) addresses
this need in its Guidelines for Distance Education Services (2000):
"Library resources and services in institutions of higher education
must meet the needs of all their faculty, students, and academic
support staff, wherever these individuals are located, whether on a
main campus, off campus, in distance education or extended campus
programs -- or in the absence of a campus at all, in courses taken for
credit or non-credit; in continuing education programs; in courses
attended in person or by means of electronic transmission; or any
other means of distance education."
Within the e-learning and distance education worlds, providing
effective information literacy programs brings together the challenges
of both distance librarianship and instruction. With the prevalence of
course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard, library staff
are embedding infomration literacy training within academic programs
and within individual classes themselves (Presti, 2002).
See also article on library instruction.
American Association of School Librarians and Association for
Educational Communications and Technology. (1988). Information power:
Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: Author. (ED 315
American Library Association and Association for Educational
Communications and Technology. (1998). Information power: Building
partnerships for learning. Chicago: Author.
American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information
Literacy. (1989).Final report. Chicago: Author. (ED 315 028)
Barner, R. (1996, March/April). Seven changes that will challenge
managers-and workers. The Futurist, 30(2), 14-18.
Breivik. P. S. & Senn, J. A. (1998). Information literacy: Educating
children for the 21st century. (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: National
Carpenter, J. P. (1989). Using the new technologies to create links
between schools throughout the world: Colloquy on computerized school
links. (Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom, 17-20 Oct. 1988).
Doyle, C.S. (1992). Outcome Measures for Information Literacy Within
the National Education Goals of 1990. Final Report to National Forum
on Information Literacy. Summary of Findings.
Hashim, E. (1986). Educating students to think: The role of the school
library media program, an introduction. In Information literacy:
Learning how to learn. A collection of articles from School Library
Media Quarterly, (15)1, 17-18.
Kuhlthau, C. C. (1987). Information skills for an information society:
A review of research. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information
Resources. (ED 297 740)
National Commission of Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at
risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office. (ED 226 006)
Presti, P. (2002). Incorporating information literacy and distance
learning within a course management system: a case study. Ypsilanti,
MI: Loex News, (29)2-3, 3-12-13. Retrieved February 3, 2004 from
Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1991). What
work requires of schools: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington,
DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. (ED 332 054)
* Information Literacy. ERIC
Digests (http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/information.htm) The
original version of this Wikipedia article is from this public
* Information Literacy in an Information Society. ERIC
* Information Literacy Instruction in Higher Education: Trends
and Issues. ERIC
* Information Literacy and Teacher
* LIK Lernsystem Informationskompetenz (in
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