[Paleopsych] Wiki: Information Literacy

Premise Checker checker at panix.com
Wed Mar 30 20:13:34 UTC 2005

This is a very good summary of what information literacy is. I've been 
trying to persuade the powers that be at the U.S. Department of Education, 
as they extend the No Child Left Behind Act to high school. to allow the 
States to go ahead and develop curriculum standards for information 
literacy that won't get neglected when complying with NCLB assessment 
tests in reading, mathematics, and science. So far, not much luck, for 
there's a pervasive us vs. them mentality afloat, whereby critics of NCLB 
are seen as obstructionists looking for excuses to back off NCLB 
standards. The reality is quite a bit more nuanced. Perhaps E.D. could be 
persuaded to launch a new initiative, to promote information literacy. I'd 
call it "Education for the World of 2025," "Information Literacy for the 
Future," or some such. Getting political appointees to pay attention is 
not easy!


Information Literacy
>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

     Information literacy is the ability "to recognize when information is
     needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively
     the needed information" (1989, p. 1).

     An information literate person is one who:
       * recognizes that accurate and complete information is the basis for
         intelligent decision making
       * recognizes the need for information
       * formulates questions based on information needs
       * identifies potential sources of information
       * develops successful search strategies
       * accesses sources of information including computer-based and other
       * evaluates information
       * organizes information for practical application
       * integrates new information into an existing body of knowledge
       * uses information in critical thinking and problem solving (Doyle,

     Since information may be presented in a number of formats, the term
     information applies to more than just the printed word. Other
     [7]literacies such as visual, media, computer, network, and basic
     literacies are implicit in information literacy.
     [8]1 History of the concept
     [9]2 Evolution of the economy
     [10]3 Effect on education
     [11]4 Education in the USA

     [12]4.1 Standards
     [13]4.2 K-12 education restructuring
     [14]4.3 Efforts in K-12 education
     [15]4.4 Efforts in higher education
     [16]4.5 Technology
     [17]4.6 Distance education
     [18]5 References
     [19]6 External links

History of the concept

     The seminal event in the development of the concept of information
     literacy was the establishment of the ALA Presidential Committee on
     Information Literacy whose final report outlined the importance of the

     Other important events include:
       * [21]1983: A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Education Reform
            + shows that we are "raising a new generation of Americans that
              is scientifically and technologically illiterate."
       * [22]1986: Educating Students to Think: The Role of the School
         Library Media Program
            + outlines the roles of the library and the information
              resources in K-12 education
       * [23]1987: Information Skills for an Information Society: A Review
         of Research
            + includes library skills and computer skills in the definition
              of information literacy
       * [24]1988: Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media
       * [25]1989: National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL), a
         coalition of more than 65 national organizations, has its first
       * [26]1998: Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning
            + emphasizes that the mission of the school library media
              program is "to ensure that students and staff are effective
              users of ideas and information."


Evolution of the economy

     The change from an economy based on labor and capital to one based on
     information requires information literate workers who will know how to
     interpret information.

     Barner's (1996) study of the new workplace indicates significant
     changes will take place in the future:
       * The work force will become more decentralized
       * The work force will become more diverse
       * The economy will become more global
       * The use of temporary workers will increase

     These changes will require that workers possess information literacy
     skills. The SCANS (1991) report identifies the skills necessary for
     the workplace of the future. Rather than report to a hierarchical
     management structure, workers of the future will be required to
     actively participate in the management of the company and contribute
     to its success. To survive in this [28]information society, workers
     will need to possess skills beyond those of reading, writing and

Effect on education

     Because information literacy skills are vital to future success:
       * Information literacy skills must be taught in the context of the
         overall process.
       * Instruction in information literacy skills must be integrated into
         the curriculum and reinforced both within and outside of the
         educational setting.


Education in the USA



     With the passage of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act (1994),
     subject matter organizations were able to obtain funding to develop
     standards in their respective subject areas. Information literacy
     skills are implicit in the National Education Goals and national
     content standards documents.

     Three of the eight National Education Goals demonstrate the critical
     nature of information literacy to an information society:
       * Goal 1: School Readiness
       * Goal 3: Student Achievement and Citizenship
       * Goal 6: Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning

     An analysis of national content standards documents reveals that they
     all focus on lifelong learning, the ability to think critically, and
     on the use of new and existing information for problem solving.

     Individual states are creating initiatives to ensure that students
     attain information literacy skills by the time they graduate from high
     school. Kentucky (1995), Utah (1996), and California (1994) are but
     three examples of states that have publications depicting these

     National content standards, state standards, and information literacy
     skills terminology may vary, but all have common components relating
     to information literacy.

K-12 education restructuring

     Educational reform and restructuring make information literacy skills
     a necessity as students seek to construct their own knowledge and
     create their own understandings.

     Educators are selecting various forms of resource-based learning
     (authentic learning, problem-based learning and work-based learning)
     to help students focus on the process and to help students learn from
     the content. Information literacy skills are necessary components of

     The process approach to education is requiring new forms of student
     assessment. Students demonstrate their skills, assess their own
     learning, and evaluate the processes by which this learning has been
     achieved by preparing portfolios, learning and research logs, and
     using rubrics.

Efforts in K-12 education

     Information literacy efforts are underway on individual, local, and
     regional bases.

     Imaginative Web based information literacy tutorials are being created
     and integrated with curriculum areas, or being used for staff
     development purposes.

     Library media programs are fostering information literacy by
     integrating the presentation of information literacy skills with
     curriculum at all grade levels.

     Information literacy efforts are not being limited to the library
     field, but are also being employed by regional educational consortia.

     Parents are encouraging their children to develop information literacy
     skills at home by contacting KidsConnect, the Internet help and
     referral service for K-12 students. Parents are also helping students
     work through the information problem solving process as they assist
     their children with their homework.

Efforts in higher education

     The inclusion of information competencies as a graduation requirement
     is the key that will fully integrate information literacy into the
     curricula of academic institutions.

     Information literacy instruction in higher education can take a
     variety of forms: stand-alone courses or classes, online tutorials,
     workbooks, course-related instruction, or course-integrated

     State-wide university systems and individual colleges and universities
     are undertaking strategic planning to determine information
     competencies, to incorporate instruction in information competence
     throughout the curriculum and to add information competence as a
     graduation requirement for students.

     Academic library programs are preparing faculty to facilitate their
     students' mastery of information literacy skills so that the faculty
     can in turn provide information literacy learning experiences for the
     students enrolled in their classes.


     Information Technology is the great enabler. It provides, for those
     who have access to it, an extension of their powers of perception,
     comprehension, analysis, thought, concentration, and articulation
     through a range of activities that include: writing, visual images,
     mathematics, music, physical movement, sensing the environment,
     simulation, and communication (Carpenter, 1989, p. 2).

     Technology, in all of its various forms, offers users the tools to
     access, manipulate, transform, evaluate, use, and present information.

     Technology in schools includes computers, televisions, video cameras,
     video editing equipment, and TV studios.

     Two approaches to technology in K-12 schools are technology as the
     object of instruction approach, and technology as the tool of
     instruction approach.

     Schools are starting to incorporate technology skills instruction in
     the context of information literacy skills.

     Technology is changing the way higher education institutions are
     offering instruction. The use of the Internet is being taught the
     contexts of subject area curricula and the overall information
     literacy process.

     There is some empirical indication that students who use technology as
     a tool may become better at managing information, communicating, and
     presenting ideas.

Distance education

     Now that information literacy has become a part of the core curriculum
     at many post-secondary institutions, it is incumbent upon the library
     community to be able to provide information literacy instruction in a
     variety of formats, including online learning and distance education.
     The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) addresses
     this need in its Guidelines for Distance Education Services (2000):

     "Library resources and services in institutions of higher education
     must meet the needs of all their faculty, students, and academic
     support staff, wherever these individuals are located, whether on a
     main campus, off campus, in distance education or extended campus
     programs -- or in the absence of a campus at all, in courses taken for
     credit or non-credit; in continuing education programs; in courses
     attended in person or by means of electronic transmission; or any
     other means of distance education."

     Within the e-learning and distance education worlds, providing
     effective information literacy programs brings together the challenges
     of both distance librarianship and instruction. With the prevalence of
     course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard, library staff
     are embedding infomration literacy training within academic programs
     and within individual classes themselves (Presti, 2002).

     See also article on [37]library instruction.


     American Association of School Librarians and Association for
     Educational Communications and Technology. (1988). Information power:
     Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: Author. (ED 315

     American Library Association and Association for Educational
     Communications and Technology. (1998). Information power: Building
     partnerships for learning. Chicago: Author.

     American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information
     Literacy. (1989).Final report. Chicago: Author. (ED 315 028)

     Barner, R. (1996, March/April). Seven changes that will challenge
     managers-and workers. The Futurist, 30(2), 14-18.

     Breivik. P. S. & Senn, J. A. (1998). Information literacy: Educating
     children for the 21st century. (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: National
     Education Association.

     Carpenter, J. P. (1989). Using the new technologies to create links
     between schools throughout the world: Colloquy on computerized school
     links. (Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom, 17-20 Oct. 1988).

     Doyle, C.S. (1992). Outcome Measures for Information Literacy Within
     the National Education Goals of 1990. Final Report to National Forum
     on Information Literacy. Summary of Findings.

     Hashim, E. (1986). Educating students to think: The role of the school
     library media program, an introduction. In Information literacy:
     Learning how to learn. A collection of articles from School Library
     Media Quarterly, (15)1, 17-18.

     Kuhlthau, C. C. (1987). Information skills for an information society:
     A review of research. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information
     Resources. (ED 297 740)

     National Commission of Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at
     risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S.
     Government Printing Office. (ED 226 006)

     Presti, P. (2002). Incorporating information literacy and distance
     learning within a course management system: a case study. Ypsilanti,
     MI: Loex News, (29)2-3, 3-12-13. Retrieved February 3, 2004 from

     Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1991). What
     work requires of schools: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington,
     DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. (ED 332 054)

External links

       * [41]Information Literacy. ERIC
         Digests (http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/information.htm) The
         original version of this Wikipedia article is from this public
         domain site.
       * [42]Information Literacy in an Information Society. ERIC
         Digest. (http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/information.htm)
       * [43]Information Literacy Instruction in Higher Education: Trends
         and Issues. ERIC
         Digest. (http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-1/information.htm)
       * [44]Information Literacy and Teacher
         Education. (http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-2/information.htm)
       * [45]LIK Lernsystem Informationskompetenz (in
         German). (http://www.lik-online.de/)


     7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy
     8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#History_of_the_concept
     9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Evolution_of_the_economy
    10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Effect_on_education
    11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Education_in_the_USA
    12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Standards
    13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#K-12_education_restructuring
    14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Efforts_in_K-12_education
    15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Efforts_in_higher_education
    16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Technology
    17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#Distance_education
    18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#References
    19. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy#External_links
    20. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=1
    21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983
    22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1986
    23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1987
    24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1988
    25. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1989
    26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998
    27. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=2
    28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_society
    29. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=3
    30. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=4
    31. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=5
    32. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=6
    33. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=7
    34. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=8
    35. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=9
    36. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=10
    37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_instruction
    38. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=11
    39. http://www.emich.edu/public/loex/news/ln290202.pdf
    40. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_literacy&action=edit&section=12
    41. http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/information.htm
    42. http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/information.htm
    43. http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-1/information.htm
    44. http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-2/information.htm
    45. http://www.lik-online.de/

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